Category Archives: Baseball

Looking for bullshit in Earl Weaver’s “Weaver On Strategy”

Weaver on StrategyADDED 7/4/16: A commenter below missed the point of this piece. The point isn’t that Earl Weaver was an idiot or that he couldn’t manage; that’s clearly not true. The point is that memories are often inaccurate. Nothing that Weaver got “wrong” in his book means that his principles weren’t sound. But I’m always fascinated by what we remember…or don’t remember.

Earl Weaver, the Hall of Fame manager who led the Baltimore Orioles to four World Series and a Series championship in 1970, wrote a book about his craft in 1984 after he retired from the dugout for the first time. In “Weaver On Strategy,” written with Terry Pluto, he laid out his philosophies in all areas of the game and his rationales behind them. It’s a fun read, and especially so 30+ years after it was written, as so many approaches to the game have changed radically since Weaver’s day (for instance, good luck finding a nine-man pitching staff in an era in which teams sometime use nine — or 13 — pitchers in a game).

Earl peppers his yarn with real-life examples…or at least what he remembers them to be. Because I am fond of holding baseball memories up to the light of reality (as I’ve done here, here, here, here and here), I’m going to take a close look at some of what Weaver remembered and call bullshit when need be.

Let’s start with Chapter 1, Spring Training, on page 22 (I’m using the 1984 Collier Books soft cover):

[Boog] Powell often had bad Aprils. He couldn’t stand the cold weather. He would go into May hitting around .100, but you had to stick with Boog until he got going.


Yeah, I forgot Boog Powell played for the Indians in 1975, even though the image of him in this all-red uniform should have been burned on my retina

VERDICT: Exaggerated, but essentially true. Powell actually hit below .200 in April only once, in 1972 when he hit .121, but he wasn’t much over .200 most of the Aprils he played for Weaver (1969-75). His .229 career average in April was by far his lowest of any month (he hit at least .260 every other month). But in his last April playing for Weaver, 1975, Powell hit an uncharacteristic .440, with four homers in 25 at-bats. (ADDED 7/5/16: Hey, guess what? I get to call bullshit on MYSELF! Yes, Boog hit .440 in April 1975, but as someone pointed out, he did so playing for Frank Robinson in Cleveland, not Earl Weaver in Baltimore. My credibility is shot already.)

On the other side of the coin is a guy like Pat Kelly….I don’t know why, but Pat often would be leading the league in hitting around May 15. Kelly always was a good hitter, but he was especially hot early in the season, and a manager should pay attention to such trends and get that guy in the lineup whenever possible in April and May.

VERDICT: Kinda sorta true. It’s true Kelly’s career April average of .305 was his highest of any month (his highest average in any other was .279). “Leading the league in hitting around May 15”? Well, in 1972 he was second in the American League, just one point behind Steve Braun, on May 15, and in 1973 he led the league by a wide margin on that date with a .426 average. Those two years clearly made a big impression on Earl. Of course, in 1976 Kelly was hitting a robust .152 on May 15. But in 1977, his first year under Weaver, Kelly was hitting .355 on May 15…not leading the league, but close.

Pat Kelly

Pat Kelly

However, Weaver seems not to have followed his own advice about how to use Kelly. Remember, Earl said “a manager should pay attention to such trends and get that guy in the lineup whenever possible in April and May.” But in 1978 — just one year after Kelly had once again gotten off to a hot start — Weaver put him in the starting lineup in just five of the Orioles’ 31 games through May 15. And Kelly started only six of 34 games during that same period in 1979, although in Earl’s defense Kelly hit a mere .217 in that time. Likewise Kelly started only five of 31 games through May 15, 1980, his last year playing for Weaver. Remember, all this happened before Earl wrote the book.

I’ve had rookies slump and I’ve stuck with them. In 1982 Cal Ripken, Jr., was batting .089 going into May. It was getting close to the point that he might have to go back to the minors. But then he got hit by a pitch, and I kept him out of the lineup for a few extra days, but to let him sit for a while and get things in perspective.

VERDICT: True in spirit. Ripken did get off to a horrible start in his first April with the Orioles — but he had three hits on opening day, and even when he stopped hitting after that his average never dipped below .100. He bottomed out at .117 after going 0-for-3 on May 1, and he hit in the ninth spot in the order the next day. Earl also exaggerated how long Ripken sat after being hit by a pitch on May 3…he missed all of one game before returning to action, and he missed exactly one game (the second game of a doubleheader) the rest of the year. His record streak of 2,632 consecutive games played began May 30, the day after he sat out that doubleheader nightcap, and his record streak of 8,264 consecutive innings began June 5.

On to page 23…

In 1977 Rich Dauer started the season at one for forty-four, and we were losing. General manager Hank Peters came to me and said that we didn’t have to keep Rich in the majors. I said, let’s give him a little more time.

VERDICT: Pretty damn close. Dauer had gone 4-for-39 in his first taste of the major leagues in 1976, and things went even worse to start 1977, as Dauer had just one hit in 41 at-bats through the end of May, playing sporadically (he started only 12 of the first 44 games). But the Orioles weren’t losing — they were 26-18 in those 44 games, despite Dauer’s lack of production at the plate. Looking back, it is pretty remarkable that Weaver was willing to stick with a guy who had gotten off to a 5-for-80 start in his major league career. Earl put some faith in the fact that Dauer had led the International League in 1976 with a .336 batting average.

Even though Mike Flanagan started one season at 2-8, I kept him in the rotation.

VERDICT: Absolutely right. Flanagan was 2-8 in 1977, his first full season in the rotation, then won his next six starts and finished the year 15-10.

Now to page 25:

Even good players run into a pitcher they simply can’t hit. For example, Gary Roenicke may never hit Dan Quisenberry. Boog Powell was one for sixty-one against Mickey Lolich. You defeat your purpose when you have guys in the lineup against pitchers they can’t hit. Boog had a miserable time against Jim Kaat, too. So when Lolich or Kaat pitched, it wasn’t smart to have Powell in the lineup.


Mickey Lolich wasn’t the only lefty who gave Boog Powell fits…Boog’s lifetime average against lefties was 37 points lower than his average against normal people

VERDICT: Sniff…sniff…I smell bull droppings with regard to Boog Powell, although again the spirit is pretty much correct. As far as Roenicke is concerned, Earl seems to have rushed to judgment. Before the book was written Roenicke had all of five plate appearances against the Royals relief ace during Weaver’s tenure (Earl stepped down after the 1982 season), with one walk, no hits and no strikeouts. That’s just not very much to base an opinion on, one way or the other.

But as far as Powell is concerned…if “it wasn’t smart to have Powell in the lineup” against Lolich, why in the world would Weaver have let him hit against him 61 times?

Despite the fact that Weaver thought Powell couldn’t hit Lolich, Boog did face Lolich more often that any other left-hander (Powell hit left-handed), and there were only five righties Powell went up against more often. And while Boog certainly struggled against Lolich, he wasn’t anything close to 1-for-61. (And by the way, on page 58 Weaver writes that Powell was 2-for-61 against Lolich. Still not true.)

Boog was actually at his worst against Lolich before Weaver took over as Baltimore manager, going 3-for-23 with two walks and no homers. Once Earl was in charge, here’s how Powell did:

1968 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 .333 .500 .333
1969 8 3 1 0 1 2 0 1 .375 .375 .875
1970 17 5 0 0 1 4 1 6 .294 .316 .471
1971 21 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 .048 .048 .048
1972 11 1 1 0 0 1 0 5 .091 .091 .182
1973 6 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 .333 .333 .333
1974 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .000 .000 .000
TOTALS 67 13 2 0 2 8 2 16 .194 .214 .313
Provided by View Original Table
Generated 5/29/2016.

As bad as this is, it’s still a long way from 1-for-61. Boog’s 2-for-32 performance against Lolich in 1971-72 clearly left some scars on Earl’s memory.

It took a while for a Weaver to give up on Powell against Lolich.

Lolich starts vs. Orioles Powell starts vs. Lolich
1968 3 2
1969 4 2
1970 5 5
1971 6 5
1972 5 3
1973 6 2
1974 5 0

Note that in 1970 and ’71 Powell started 10 of 11 games against Lolich, but by 1973 Weaver had finally figured out how things were going, and Boog started just three out of 14 games against Lolich after that.

As far as Jim Kaat was concerned, Weaver was much quicker to shut down Powell. Boog was 9-for-46 against the Twins lefty before Weaver became manager, and in the 22 games Kaat started against Weaver’s teams Powell started only five, none of them after 1970…meaning the last 15 times Kaat went up against the Orioles Powell started the game on the bench. Boog had five hits (all singles) in 18 at-bats against Kaat under Weaver, with two walks; that includes a pinch-hit appearance and a time when Kaat faced him in relief. Boog was in the lineup in the 1970 American League playoff series game that Kaat started and stroked an RBI single his first time up; it was the first run of the game and held up as the game-winning hit.

Next we turn to page 41, and a discussion about Tom Shopay as Weaver writes about why he likes players who draw walks:

Shopay was a base-on-balls man. His record in the minors showed it. But when he did get into the lineup with Baltimore, he didn’t do one of the things he did best: take pitches and draw walks….I’d play him against Nolan Ryan, because I figured he could draw a walk and start a rally, assuming he wouldn’t swing at all those pitches Ryan would throw outside the strike zone. But Tommy would press and keep swinging at those bad pitches.

VERDICT: You know how many times Weaver started Shopay against Ryan? One…and while it’s true he went 0-for-3 with a strikeout, he did draw a walk. Shopay had four other plate appearances against Ryan off the bench, and walked in one of them. Two walks in eight appearances isn’t too shabby, even against Ryan.

But the real bullshit here is that Shopay “was a base-on-balls man.” He never walked more than 49 times in a minor league season, and his Class AAA walk rates were nothing special.

1967 590 37
1968 490 21
1969 279 26
1970 408 49
1973 536 46
1974 400 41
1976 202 24

(Shopay spent all of 1971, 1972 and 1975 in the majors, playing very little.) Seems like walking in 25% of his plate appearances against Ryan was pretty good for a guy who walked in 8% of his AAA plate appearances from 1967-76. Maybe the reason Weaver remembers being so frustrated with Shopay was because he mis-evaluated him in the first place.

Now to page 44:

I remember a game in 1976 when Reggie Jackson was playing for the Orioles. Reggie had pretty good speed and he could steal a base. In this instance, Reggie was on first with two outs. A left-hander was pitching to Lee May. May hit a lot of home runs off lefties in his career, but Reggie decided to steal second. He made it, and he thought he made a good play, but the pitcher promptly walked May. I had wanted Lee to have a chance at winning the game in that spot, but the stolen base cost him the opportunity.

VERDICT: Bullshit. And in fact, something completely contrary to this did happen.

I looked at all the games in 1976 — the only year Reggie played for the Orioles — in which Jackson stole a base (he stole 28, including four games in which he stole two bases) AND May walked (he had 41, including three games in which he walked twice). I found May never walked after Jackson stole a base.


Reggie Jackson’s career high in stolen bases came when he played for Earl Weaver in 1976

But on September 4, in the bottom of the seventh inning against the Yankees, Jackson drew a two-out walk off lefty Ken Holtzman with the Orioles trailing 2-1. Jackson then stole second. Holtzman didn’t walk May with first base open, perhaps because it would have meant putting the go-ahead run on base; May singled to score Reggie and tie the game, although the Orioles went on to lose, 4-2.

Maybe Weaver remembered the right incident with the wrong runner…maybe Reggie wasn’t the one who stole the base to take the bat out of May’s hands? Well, not in 1976…I looked at all eight of May’s intentional walks that year, and none of them came after a stolen base.

Perhaps something similar to this happened at some point in Weaver’s career and in his mind he put the blame on Reggie. But this event, as described, never occurred.

Here are a few from page 59:

Mark Belanger hit well over .300 against Jim Kern and Nolan Ryan, but he was barely a .200 hitter against the rest of the league.

VERDICT: There’s some bullshit in there. Belanger, a .228 lifetime hitter, went 10-for-16 against the hard-throwing Kern, but against Ryan he was 12-for-48 (including playoffs) for a .250 mark. Belanger did draw 10 walks off Ryan for a .367 on-base percentage.

Another unbelievable statistic was that Pat Kelly was six for eight against Detroit’s Dave Rozema — with four of those hits being home runs. If Rozema was in the game, I’d do everything in my power to get Kelly up to bat.

VERDICT: Kelly was indeed 6-for-8 with four homers against Rozema. But the bit about doing “everything in my power” to get Kelly to the plate against Rozema is a bit of a stretch. Rozema started only three games against the Orioles during Kelly’s years with the team (1977-80)…Kelly sat out the first, in 1977, then started and hit two homers in 1978 and another homer in 1979. In 1980 Rozema faced the Orioles in relief three times when Kelly wasn’t already in the lineup…and on two of those occasions Weaver chose not to use Kelly, including once when Weaver left right-handed hitting Lee May in to bat as DH against the right-handed Rozema rather than use Kelly, a left-handed hitter, to pinch-hit. But on September 10, Weaver brought Kelly in to hit for Benny Ayala against Rozema with the bases loaded, and Kelly launched a grand slam that provided the wining runs. (Kelly was hitting in the designated hitter’s spot in the first game in which Weaver used his “phantom DH.”)  At any rate, keep in mind that Kelly’s outstanding stat line against Rozema was compiled in just three games.

In my early years with the Orioles Curt Motton was three for five off Rudy May. The three hits were home runs.

VERDICT: Earl actually undersold this one. Motton faced May only four times…with homers in both at-bats in a game in 1969 and one homer in two trips to the plate in a game in 1970. But Weaver didn’t take full advantage of Motton’s seeming mastery of May, as May started five other games against the Orioles during Motton’s time with the team in which Motton did not appear.

Two of the players who gave [Jim] Palmer fits were Craig Reynolds and Doug Griffin. Palmer would say late in a game, “Griffin is coming up, and don’t let me get in trouble. Griffin is hitting about .400 against me.”

VERDICT: True. Griffin hit .362 against Palmer (17-for-47), and Reynolds was 5-for-6 and singled the first five times he faced Palmer, albeit those hits came in just two games a week apart. He went up against Palmer only once after that and struck out.

On to page 60:

This is something I did in September of 1975. Mark Belanger was a .220 hitter for me for most of his career, but he was also the greatest defensive shortstop I have ever seen. I spent some time trying to figure out how I could get the best of both worlds —  a good bat and Belanger’s amazing glove. I came up with this plan, which is still legal.

When my team was on the road, I would list someone else as our leadoff hitter and shortstop. Often it was Royle Stillman, a young outfielder we had brought up from Rochester. Stillman would bat in the top of the first, and then Belanger would go in to play shortstop in the bottom of the inning….Stillman was four for nine in those games. That’s .444, which isn’t too bad. His on-base percentage was over .500.


His full name rolls off the tongue: Royle Eldon Stillman

VERDICT: Essentially true, but several things here aren’t quite right. Weaver did use this tactic with Stillman, but when he writes, “Often it was Royle Stillman,” that implies he used other players in this role in 1975. He didn’t; Stillman was the only one. And Stillman was not 4-for-9 in those games; there were only six of these games, and Stillman had three singles in six at-bats for a .500 average. Also, Stillman hit leadoff in only three of the games and batted second in the other three. Before using Stillman as his “shortstop,” Weaver used him once as a “center fielder,” having him bat in the top of the first before putting Paul Blair in the game (Blair’s .218 batting average in 1975 was actually lower than Belanger’s .226). Stillman was a left-handed thrower, and while he never actually appeared on the field as a shortstop, his appearance at the position on the lineup card earned him a mention in my review of left-handed shortstops, second basemen and third basemen.

Page 65:

Say it’s the eighth inning of a close game and the bases are loaded with one out. Rick Dempsey is hitting for the Orioles against Fergie Jenkins. Dempsey has a batting average just barely over .100 against Jenkins, and Fergie’s slider gives Rick all sorts of trouble. If a manager has Terry Crowley sitting on the bench and doesn’t use him to hit for Dempsey, there’s something wrong.

VERDICT: Again, Weaver undersold this, although he’s presenting this as a hypothetical. Dempsey never got a regular season hit off Jenkins, in eight plate appearances. Of course, that involved just two games Dempsey started, and in the first one (in 1977) Weaver pinch-hit for him in the ninth inning with Tony Muser (the Orioles were behind by four runs with the bases empty). In the second game (in 1979) Weaver let Dempsey hit in the eighth inning with the O’s down by four. What’s funny is Weaver twice used Dempsey as a PINCH-HITTER against Jenkins, although Baltimore was way behind on both occasions.

Ahead to page 77:

I also use my statistics to decide on changing pitchers. Let’s say it’s a crucial part of the game, and Jim Palmer is pitching to Graig Nettles. Nettles is a .375 hitter against Palmer, but my stats show that he’s only two for twenty-one against Tippy, so I’ll bring in Martinez to face Nettles. The decision is made for you.

VERDICT: Again this is presented as a hypothetical, but the faint whiff of bullshit is in the air. Nettles actually hit .243 in his career against Palmer, although in the first three years he faced Palmer (1969-71) he was 12-for-35 (.343), including the 1969 playoffs. But Weaver is close to the mark concerning Martinez; Nettles was 3-for-23 against Tippy while Weaver was managing the O’s.

Page 81:

I remember a game when Aurelio Rodriguez was with the old Washington Senators and I had Mike Cuellar pitching. In the first inning Cuellar threw Rodriguez a fastball, and he homered. The next two times up, Cuellar got Rodriguez with screwballs. In the ninth inning Rodriguez batted again. Mike got two strikes on him and figured that Rodriguez would be looking for the screwball….So Mike crossed him up and threw a fastball. Rodriguez hit it over the center-field fence to beat us.

VERDICT: True in spirit, but with some notable errors. Rodriguez hit only two home runs in his entire career against Cuellar, and they came in different games. But the first of those homers, in 1970, clearly triggered this memory. Aurelio (the original A-Rod) doubled in the first inning, then struck out and lined out his next two times up. His next time up, in the eighth (not ninth) inning, with the Senators trailing 3-2, Rodriguez hit a three-run homer for the margin of victory. I’ll give Earl a pass on this one.

And now page 106:

There was an episode with Doug DeCinces in 1978 when the Orioles were facing Cleveland in the first game of  a doubleheader. DeCinces was playing second base, and there were runners on first and second with one out. A ground ball was hit, and Mark Belanger had to range far to make the play. He caught it and threw to DeCinces at second for the force. The throw was to the outfield side of second, and Doug held on to the ball for quite a while. What Doug didn’t notice was that Buddy Bell kept running and scored all the way from second base….I took DeCinces out of the first game of that doubleheader, but he was back in the lineup for the second game.

VERDICT: Wow. Earl absolutely nailed this one. It happened on May 28, and I wonder if the reason the details are so accurate is because book co-author Terry Pluto was covering the game as the Indians beat writer for the Akron Beacon Journal and had his own scorebook or game story to refer to (I don’t know that for sure, but I suspect Pluto was working in that role at the time). DeCinces did indeed play in the second game of that doubleheader — but at third base, not second (Earl didn’t say he played second base in the game, I just thought you’d want to know). In fact, DeCinces played second base only once for Weaver after this (he was the Orioles’ primary third baseman through 1981).

None of my nit-picking is meant to denigrate the book; Earl imparts a lot of baseball wisdom in an entertaining way. It’s just a reminder to take baseball memories with at least a few grains of salt.

UPDATE: A few things about complete games

I started this blog in 2009; I now have some additional resources so I thought I might revisit and revise some of my earlier posts. For instance, when I first wrote about complete games,’s Play Index data base went back only to 1954. It now goes back to 1913, meaning I can paint a more complete picture.

For those of you under the age of 30, a pitcher is given credit for a “complete game” if he is his team’s only pitcher in a game. I don’t think there’s anything inherently better or more manly about the idea of a pitcher going all nine (or more) innings rather than having help from the bullpen. But the game has really changed from just a couple generations ago, and I’m going to include some numbers here that will boggle the mind if the only baseball you know is that of the 21st century.

In 1913, when the current Play Index database begins, 53% of all starting pitchers worked a complete game, and from there the number rose as high as 63% in the war-shortened 1918 season. Since the percentage of complete games has slowly but steadily decreased, dropping below 50% in 1923, below 40% in 1947, below 30% in 1957, below 20% in 1981 (the advent of the designated hitter rule in 1973 helped prop up American League complete games for a while), below 10% in 1991 and below 5% in 2001. Last season (2015) there were just 104 complete games in 4,858 starts, or 2.1%. In other words, complete games were more than 25 times as likely in 1913 and about five times as likely as recently as 1990. You can see the whole story, along with other relevant stats from each season, here.

At any rate, in the lists that follow, we’re not going to see any pitchers who worked in the last 30 years.

Let’s start with the pitchers who, since 1913, have the most complete game wins — and for this purpose I’m going to specify complete games of at least nine innings, so as to exclude games shortened because of weather, darkness, or other reasons. (In all of these charts, when you see “Ind. Games,” click on that link to see details for all the individual games in question.) The first name on this list blows my mind.

Player #Matching ERA SHO IP HR WHIP Tm
Warren Spahn 321 Ind. Games 1.56 63 2909.0 148 0.96 BSN,MLN,NYM,SFG
Pete Alexander 293 Ind. Games 1.34 77 2711.0 50 0.92 PHI,CHC,STL
Robin Roberts 236 Ind. Games 1.83 45 2151.0 145 0.91 PHI,BAL,HOU,CHC
Ted Lyons 236 Ind. Games 2.05 26 2152.0 77 1.09 CHW
Walter Johnson 235 Ind. Games 1.28 75 2183.0 31 0.90 WSH
Lefty Grove 235 Ind. Games 1.89 33 2150.0 64 1.08 PHA,BOS
Burleigh Grimes 232 Ind. Games 1.99 35 2114.0 56 1.12 BRO,NYG,PIT,BSN,STL,CHC
Gaylord Perry 225 Ind. Games 1.22 53 2040.0 73 0.85 SFG,CLE,TEX,SDP,ATL,SEA,KCR
Red Ruffing 223 Ind. Games 1.90 43 2038.0 68 1.06 BOS,NYY
Early Wynn 222 Ind. Games 1.31 49 2015.0 77 0.97 WSH,CLE,CHW
Bob Feller 218 Ind. Games 1.63 43 1977.0 67 1.04 CLE
Steve Carlton 215 Ind. Games 1.38 55 1940.0 72 0.92 STL,PHI,CLE
Carl Hubbell 211 Ind. Games 1.66 35 1924.0 87 0.95 NYG
Fergie Jenkins 208 Ind. Games 1.42 49 1877.0 112 0.82 CHC,BOS,TEX
Juan Marichal 206 Ind. Games 1.45 52 1873.0 110 0.85 SFG
Eppa Rixey 202 Ind. Games 1.49 34 1861.0 20 1.01 PHI,CIN
Red Faber 200 Ind. Games 1.66 29 1843.0 32 1.06 CHW
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 3/20/2016.

Apparently this photo of Warren Spahn was taken without the use of a drone

Only 14 other pitchers in major league history have won more than 321 games in any form. Warren Spahn had 321 COMPLETE GAME wins of nine innings or more (and 10 of them went ten innings or more)…88% of his total career wins. Wow. Who needs a bullpen? Throw in the fact that Spahn earned five wins in relief, and that leaves just 37 games Spahn won as a starter in which he did not pitch a complete game of at least nine innings…out of 665 career starts. And look: in those 321 complete game wins, nearly 3,000 innings of pitching — the equivalent of about 15 SEASONS for a modern starting pitcher — Spahn had a 1.56 ERA.

Among recent pitchers, Greg Maddux had 355 career wins — just eight fewer than Spahn — and Roger Clemens finished with 354. But Maddux had just 91 complete game wins of nine innings or more (only one of them more) and Clemens only 92 (all of them nine innings),. Maddux had the same number of career complete game wins as Larry Dierker, who had just 139 total wins in the 1960s and ’70s. Clemens had fewer complete game wins than Denny McLain, whose career victory total in that same era was just 131. The active (as of 2016) leader in career complete games, CC Sabathia, has merely 27 complete game wins of nine innings (and none of more) among his 214 career victories. Things have changed. A lot.

Of course, the list above goes back only to 1913, and Spahn is not likely the all-time major league leader in complete game wins. Of the 14 other pitchers with more than 321 total wins, seven spent all or nearly all their careers before 1913, when complete games were much more likely (back in the 19th century, starting pitchers completed well over 80% of their games); several of them, led by all-time wins leader Cy Young, likely have more complete game wins. And Spahn is probably not even the all-time leader among pitchers on this list.

Grover Cleveland Alexander won 47 games in his first two seasons in the majors (1911-12) and threw 56 complete games. While he also had 17 non-save relief appearances, some of which may have resulted in victories, I’d guess he had enough complete game wins in those seasons to pass Spahn when combined with his 293 complete game wins from 1913 on. And Walter Johnson likely has even more. While he is 86 behind Spahn from 1913 on, he won 115 games from 1907-12 and pitched 169 complete games, finishing 87% of his starts. While he had 25 non-save relief appearances, I’d wager to say the vast majority of those pre-1913 wins were complete games.


Ted Lyons

Ted Lyons is worth a mention here. Complete games of nine or more innings accounted for 91% of the longtime White Sox star’s career victories. In his career Lyons won only nine games he started and did not pitch a complete game of at least nine innings (he won 15 games in relief). And in one of those nine wins, he went 14-1/3 innings, the longest outing of his career. That leaves EIGHT of Lyons’ 245 career wins as a starter in which he didn’t pitch at least nine innings. Whoa.

Over the last decade or so of Lyons’ career he was known as a “Sunday pitcher,” typically starting only one game a week and typically finishing what he started. In fact, Lyons pitched a complete game in each of his last 28 career starts and in nearly three-quarters of his career starts.

Gaylord Perry is the first pitcher on this list whose career extended past 1966 (in his case, 1983). Jim Bunning and Catfish Hunter each won 224 games in their Hall of Fame careers. Gaylord Perry won 225 COMPLETE GAMES of at least nine innings (with an astounding ERA of 1.22 in more than 2,000 innings). That’s more wins than 19 Hall of Fame 20th Century starters, including Bunning and Hunter, earned in their entire careers.

Next let’s look at career complete game losses…in this case we’ll consider performances of eight innings or longer to account for complete game losses on the road.

Player #Matching ERA IP WHIP Tm
Walter Johnson 121 Ind. Games 2.86 1071.2 1.20 WSH
Ted Lyons 119 Ind. Games 4.00 1063.2 1.42 CHW
Red Ruffing 107 Ind. Games 4.10 941.0 1.35 BOS,NYY,CHW
Wilbur Cooper 90 Ind. Games 3.02 789.1 1.21 PIT,CHC
Burleigh Grimes 78 Ind. Games 3.55 673.2 1.41 PIT,BRO,NYG,STL,CHC
Pete Alexander 78 Ind. Games 3.27 689.0 1.23 PHI,CHC,STL
Gaylord Perry 76 Ind. Games 3.05 661.1 1.10 SFG,CLE,TEX,SDP,SEA
Bert Blyleven 74 Ind. Games 3.16 629.0 1.14 MIN,TEX,PIT,CLE,CAL
Eppa Rixey 73 Ind. Games 2.93 654.1 1.29 PHI,CIN
Red Lucas 72 Ind. Games 3.76 634.1 1.31 BSN,CIN,PIT
Howard Ehmke 72 Ind. Games 4.29 619.0 1.47 DET,BOS,PHA
Hooks Dauss 72 Ind. Games 3.68 630.2 1.39 DET
Bullet Joe Bush 72 Ind. Games 3.55 618.2 1.35 PHA,BOS,NYY,SLB,WSH,PIT
Sad Sam Jones 71 Ind. Games 3.77 628.1 1.39 BOS,NYY,SLB,WSH,CHW
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 3/20/2016.

Warren Spahn, who topped our complete game wins leaderboard, doesn’t even show up here as he had only 57 complete game losses (with a 2.73 ERA in those games). Note Walter Johnson’s stats in his complete game losses…he had a 0-121 record with a 2.86 ERA! That speaks to both the low scoring of his era and his lack of offensive support. Gaylord Perry, the “modern” leader in complete game losses, had an excellent 1.10 WHIP in those games.

Now on to complete game wins in a season…in a three-year stretch Grover Cleveland Alexander posted the top three totals in the database.

Player Year #Matching ERA SHO IP WHIP Tm
Pete Alexander 1916 33 Ind. Games 0.83 16 302.0 0.82 PHI
Pete Alexander 1917 30 Ind. Games 1.10 8 278.0 0.90 PHI
Denny McLain 1968 28 Ind. Games 1.46 6 253.0 0.83 DET
Pete Alexander 1915 28 Ind. Games 0.83 11 260.0 0.75 PHI
Dazzy Vance 1924 27 Ind. Games 1.59 3 249.0 0.94 BRO
Robin Roberts 1952 27 Ind. Games 2.24 3 253.0 0.96 PHI
Bucky Walters 1939 26 Ind. Games 1.78 2 237.0 1.02 CIN
Carl Mays 1921 26 Ind. Games 2.33 1 236.0 1.10 NYY
Bob Feller 1946 26 Ind. Games 1.10 10 237.0 1.03 CLE
Eddie Cicotte 1919 26 Ind. Games 0.96 5 244.0 0.89 CHW
Pete Alexander 1920 26 Ind. Games 0.92 7 253.0 0.96 CHC
George Uhle 1926 25 Ind. Games 1.70 3 227.0 1.11 CLE
Urban Shocker 1921 25 Ind. Games 2.04 4 225.0 1.08 SLB
Hal Newhouser 1946 25 Ind. Games 1.15 6 227.0 0.91 DET
Sandy Koufax 1965 25 Ind. Games 1.15 8 226.0 0.72 LAD
Lefty Grove 1931 25 Ind. Games 1.66 4 228.0 1.04 PHA
Bob Feller 1940 25 Ind. Games 1.76 4 225.0 1.00 CLE
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 3/30/2016.

Note 16 of Alexander’s 33 complete game wins in 1916 were shutouts…that’s the all-time single season record. He went the distance in 91 of his 94 wins from 1915-17, leading the National League in wins, complete games, shutouts, ERA, innings pitched and strikeouts each year. Alexander went into the Army in 1918 during World War I and was left deaf in his left ear and with muscle damage in his pitching arm, but he came back from the war to win another 181 games.


From the Detroit Free Press the morning after Denny McLain’s 30th win in 1968

When Denny McLain became the last pitcher to win 30 games in a season in 1968 (he won 31), all 28 of his complete games were victories. In his other 13 starts he went 3-6, winning games in which he pitched 7, 7 and 6 innings.

All 26 of Bob Feller‘s wins in 1946 were complete games, as were 25 of his 27 wins in 1940.

These are the pitchers who have had at least 20 complete game wins in a season since 1960:

Player Year #Matching ERA SHO IP WHIP Tm
Denny McLain 1968 28 Ind. Games 1.46 6 253.0 0.83 DET
Sandy Koufax 1965 25 Ind. Games 1.15 8 226.0 0.72 LAD
Juan Marichal 1968 24 Ind. Games 1.40 5 219.0 0.87 SFG
Sandy Koufax 1966 24 Ind. Games 1.00 5 216.0 0.91 LAD
Fergie Jenkins 1971 24 Ind. Games 1.87 3 217.0 0.87 CHC
Steve Carlton 1972 24 Ind. Games 0.99 8 218.0 0.85 PHI
Juan Marichal 1966 23 Ind. Games 1.53 4 212.0 0.78 SFG
Mickey Lolich 1971 22 Ind. Games 1.43 4 201.0 1.00 DET
Fergie Jenkins 1974 22 Ind. Games 1.23 6 198.0 0.80 TEX
Bob Gibson 1968 22 Ind. Games 0.57 13 204.0 0.76 STL
Warren Spahn 1963 21 Ind. Games 1.62 7 189.0 0.94 MLN
Gaylord Perry 1970 21 Ind. Games 1.33 5 189.0 0.80 SFG
Juan Marichal 1965 21 Ind. Games 0.85 10 190.0 0.77 SFG
Gaylord Perry 1972 20 Ind. Games 0.92 5 185.0 0.85 CLE
Gaylord Perry 1974 20 Ind. Games 1.15 4 180.0 0.83 CLE
Denny McLain 1969 20 Ind. Games 1.25 9 180.0 0.90 DET
Juan Marichal 1964 20 Ind. Games 1.79 4 181.0 0.92 SFG
Juan Marichal 1969 20 Ind. Games 1.15 8 180.0 0.81 SFG
Mickey Lolich 1972 20 Ind. Games 1.25 4 180.0 0.98 DET
Frank Lary 1961 20 Ind. Games 1.85 4 180.0 0.96 DET
Sandy Koufax 1963 20 Ind. Games 0.69 11 183.0 0.64 LAD
Bob Gibson 1969 20 Ind. Games 1.34 4 188.0 0.98 STL
Bob Gibson 1970 20 Ind. Games 1.65 3 185.0 0.89 STL
Vida Blue 1971 20 Ind. Games 1.20 7 180.0 0.86 OAK
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 3/30/2016.



Sandy Koufax with one of his three Cy Young Awards

Sandy Koufax won the Cy Young Award in 1963, 1965 and 1966 — back when there was only one award, going to the pitcher voted the best in all the major leagues. Of his 78 wins in those seasons, 69 were complete games (24 of them shutouts)…and his ERA in those 69 games was 0.96. Juan Marichal won at least 20 complete games five times in six years from 1964-69. All 24 of Ferguson Jenkins‘ wins in 1971 were complete games. Jenkins and Gaylord Perry are the last men to win 20 complete games in a season, both in 1974; Perry, Steve Carlton and Mickey Lolich were the last to do it without a designated hitter, in 1972.

Then there’s Bob Gibson‘s heralded 1968 season in which he posted a 1.12 ERA. All 22 of his wins were complete games, three of them going extra innings. Gibby tossed 13 shutouts (five of them coming in consecutive starts) and gave up no more than one run in 20 of the 22 complete game wins, giving him an ERA in his wins of 0.57. (In his other 12 starts he allowed more than three runs only three times.)

Now on to the most complete game losses in a season (at least eight innings):

Player Year #Matching ERA IP WHIP Tm
Elmer Myers 1916 19 Ind. Games 3.84 164.0 1.39 PHA
Jim Tobin 1942 16 Ind. Games 4.44 140.0 1.34 BSN
Red Ruffing 1928 15 Ind. Games 4.27 132.2 1.42 BOS
Eppa Rixey 1920 15 Ind. Games 4.35 130.1 1.41 PHI
Red Lucas 1932 15 Ind. Games 3.09 137.0 1.28 CIN
Walter Johnson 1916 15 Ind. Games 2.24 136.1 1.15 WSH
Eddie Cicotte 1918 15 Ind. Games 3.20 132.1 1.28 CHW
George Baumgardner 1913 15 Ind. Games 3.40 132.1 1.47 SLB
Jack Quinn 1915 14 Ind. Games 3.18 121.2 1.24 BAL
Scott Perry 1918 13 Ind. Games 2.94 110.1 1.33 PHA
Walter Johnson 1914 13 Ind. Games 2.18 111.2 1.06 WSH
Walter Johnson 1917 13 Ind. Games 2.72 112.1 1.02 WSH
Wes Ferrell 1937 13 Ind. Games 3.63 114.0 1.47 BOS,WSH
Howard Ehmke 1925 13 Ind. Games 4.04 111.1 1.41 BOS
Jesse Barnes 1917 13 Ind. Games 2.54 110.0 1.01 BSN
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 4/1/2016.

The 1916 Philadelphia A’s had the worst record of any team in the 20th Century (or 21st, for that matter), finishing with a 36-117 mark. They scored the fewest runs in the American League, averaging less than three runs a game. You’d think that combination would mean they would be pinch-hitting for their pitchers a lot. You’d be wrong. Manager (and team owner) Connie Mack let his starters complete 94 of their 154 games, by far the most in the league.


From the Kalamazoo Gazette, June 7, 1916

And the man who led the A’s in complete games was Elmer Myers, a 22-year-old rookie who finished 31 of his 35 starts. Mack brought Myers up from a Class D league in September 1915 after Myers had won 29 games there; he used his newcomer in the A’s last game of the season and was delighted to see him pitch a two-hit shutout. When Myers started the 1916 season with a 6-1 record (the rest of the team was 7-16 at that point), Mack figured he was on to something special.

“Myers is the greatest young pitcher I have ever developed,” Mack was quoted as saying in an article in the Kalamazoo Gazette in June. The article concluded, “Mack predicts that before the season is over Myers will rank with Walter Johnson and Grover Alexander.”

Alas Myers went 8-22 over the rest of the season, while Johnson won 25 games for Washington and Alexander 33 for the Phillies. (Myers’ 23 losses didn’t lead the AL, though; that distinction fell to teammate Bullet Joe Bush, who went 15-24. The rest of the A’s pitching staff went 7-70. Yes, seven and seventy. No other pitcher on the team won more than two games.)

Mack was never shy about leaving his starting pitchers in to take a pounding. Myers allowed seven or more runs in seven of his complete games (including a game he won, 10-8). The worst drubbing came on September 27, when Myers gave up 17 hits and walked six in a 13-3 loss to Washington. Or, as Jim Nasium (really?) put it in the next day’s Philadelphia Inquirer, “when Elmer wasn’t striking them out they were in there whaling the dad-binged stuffings out of the pill.”

Myers TSN

A story focusing on Elmer Myers’ war experience in The Sporting News, December 19, 1940

Myers pitched in the major leagues until 1922, although he missed time to fight in World War I where he was victim of a poison gas attack by the Germans in Verdun. Bill Nowlin tells Myers’ story as part of the Society for American Baseball Research’s Baseball Biography Project.

Jim Tobin led the National League in complete games and losses for the 1942 Boston Braves, going all the way in 28 of his 33 starts and losing 16 of those games. Of course, manager Casey Stengel had motivation to leave Tobin in the game, as Tobin was one of his better hitters. He finished the season with a .246 batting average (the team average was .240) and six home runs in 114 at-bats.

Red Ruffing also used his bat to stay in the game for the 1928 Red Sox, as he hit .314 and drove in 19 runs in 121 at-bats (he also saw frequent duty a a pinch-hitter). A future star with the Yankees and a Hall of Famer, Ruffing went 10-25 for the last-place ’28 Sox, leading the AL in losses and complete games.

Red Lucas was another good-hitting pitcher who racked up a lot of complete game losses. Lucas finished 28 of his 31 starts for the last-place 1932 Reds (“last-place” is something a lot of pitchers on this list have in common) while hitting .287 and leading the team in pinch-hit appearances. Lucas won 157 games in the major leagues and also held the all-time record for career pinch-hits until the 1960s.

Only two pitchers on the list of most complete game losses had a winning record in the season in question: Walter Johnson (who had a winning record in all three of his seasons on the list) and Scott Perry. Perry was a 27-year-old who had 43-2/3 innings of major league experience when he joined the A’s in 1918. Even though he pitched for a last-place team (although not nearly as bad as they had been in 1916), Perry went 20-19 with a 1.98 ERA, led the league in innings pitched and completed 30 of his 36 starts (both of which led the league) in a season called off at Labor Day because of World War I. He had some success early in the season (including an 11-inning shutout and a one-hitter a week apart) before a nine-game losing streak left him at 5-14, but he rallied to win 15 of his next 19 decisions.

Whatever magic struck Perry in 1918 never returned; he went 4-17 in 1919, 11-25 in 1920, then announced he was finished playing organized baseball midway through the 1921 season.

Let’s look at the pitchers with the most complete game losses in a season since World War II:

Player Year #Matching ERA IP WHIP Tm
Mickey Lolich 1974 11 Ind. Games 4.14 95.2 1.28 DET
Johnny Lindell 1953 11 Ind. Games 3.87 95.1 1.52 PIT,PHI
Rick Langford 1980 11 Ind. Games 3.67 95.2 1.29 OAK
Catfish Hunter 1975 11 Ind. Games 3.23 92.0 1.15 NYY
Ned Garver 1950 11 Ind. Games 3.69 100.0 1.49 SLB
Clyde Wright 1974 10 Ind. Games 3.11 84.0 1.25 MIL
Wilbur Wood 1974 10 Ind. Games 2.63 89.0 1.12 CHW
Nolan Ryan 1974 10 Ind. Games 2.40 90.0 1.18 CAL
Nolan Ryan 1977 10 Ind. Games 3.71 87.1 1.42 CAL
Gaylord Perry 1973 10 Ind. Games 4.98 85.0 1.39 CLE
Phil Niekro 1979 10 Ind. Games 3.27 85.1 1.30 ATL
Mickey Lolich 1975 10 Ind. Games 3.64 84.0 1.24 DET
Roger Craig 1963 10 Ind. Games 1.94 83.1 0.96 NYM
Ken Brett 1976 10 Ind. Games 3.30 84.2 1.29 CHW
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 4/1/2016.

Note that of the 14 pitchers in double digits, 10 of the pitched in the American League in the early years of the designated hitter — four of them just in 1974. Wilbur Wood and Nolan Ryan deserve special mention here, as their ERAs in their complete game losses were lower than their overall season ERA. Wood’s ERA in his CGL (2.63) was almost identical to his mark in his 20 wins (2.61).

Look at poor Roger Craig with the 1963 Mets: a 1.94 ERA in 10 complete game losses, including four games he lost 1-0!  Roger had a 5-22 record for a team that went 51-111; his ERA in his five wins was 2.81.

One last note: Hall of Famer Lefty Grove had seven complete game wins in games that were called before nine innings were played, the most such games of anyone in the database.

UPDATE: Things I meant to write just after Mark Fidrych died

BirdI started this blog in 2009; I now have some additional resources so I thought I might revisit and revise some of my earlier posts. In this case I want to embellish a post I wrote a few months after Mark Fidrych died when he was just 54 years old; like his life, his playing career ended far too soon. Known as “The Bird” for his resemblance to “Sesame Street”‘s Big Bird, Fidrych was a nationally-known phenom in 1976 when he led the American League in ERA, won Rookie of the Year honors and was runner-up in the Cy Young Award voting for the Detroit Tigers, but because of injuries he won only 10 more games in his major league career.

Much of what was written about Fidrych both during his heyday and after his death focused on his unique personality, but I want to focus on the unusual way in which Tiger manager Ralph Houk used him. It’s something the likes of which we rarely saw before and haven’t seen since.

Fidrych had played just one-and-a-half seasons of pro ball before 1976 and had pitched just 205 innings, only 54 of them above Class A; he wasn’t even on the Tigers’ 40-man roster going into spring training and didn’t turn 22 until August 1976. Despite his youth and inexperience he pitched 250-1/3 innings for the Tigers in 1976, which certainly sounds like a lot by today’s standards; no one has thrown more than 250 innings in a season since another Tiger, Justin Verlander, worked 251 in 2011. (And, as we will see, Fidrych also started three in-season exhibition games and the All-Star Game in addition to those 250-1/3 innings.) Fidrych certainly had a heavy workload for one so young; since then the only pitchers to throw 250 or more innings in a season at such a young age are Dwight Gooden (twice), Fernando Valenzuela and Roger Erickson.

Fidrych RS

Not many baseball players have made it onto the cover of Rolling Stone…Mark Fidrych did when he was 22

But his innings pitched don’t tell the whole story of Fidrych’s unusual workload, because he didn’t start a game until Detroit’s 24th game of he season and had worked just one inning in relief prior to that (at least in games that counted); essentially it’s as if he pitched in a 138-game season (the Tigers played only 161 because of a rainout). Despite the late start he pitched 24 complete games; since World War II, the only pitcher who had more in a season at anywhere near as young an age was Bert Blyleven, who threw 25 complete games as a 22-year-old in 1973. And Blyleven entered that season with two-and-a-half years of major league experience. Fidrych’s 24 complete games came in only 29 starts, meaning he went the distance 82.8% of the time. Since then, the only pitcher who has started at least 20 games in a season and completed more than 75% of them is Rick Langford, who completed 28 of 33 starts (84.8%) for Billy Martin’s Oakland A’s in 1980, when he was 28. The only other pitchers who have completed more than 75% of their starts in a season since 1954 are all Hall of Famers: Catfish Hunter, Gaylord Perry, Ferguson Jenkins, Bob Gibson (twice) and Juan Marichal. And Gibson (who completed 28 of 34 starts in his fabulous 1968 season) is the only man aside from Fidrych and Langford to complete more than 80% of his starts (in a season with 20 or more) since 1953.

What’s more:

  • In five of Fidrych’s starts he pitched at least 10 innings, the most such starts in a season for any pitcher that young since at least 1913, the period covered by’s Play Index. (Seattle Bill James…not to be confused with Kansas Bill James…had seven such games as a 22-year-old for the “Miracle” Boston Braves of 1914. James won 26 games that year, plus two in the World Series, pitching a total of 343 innings. Perhaps not coincidentally, he developed arm trouble and won only five games in the rest of his major league career.) The only pitcher of any age who has had as many 10+-inning starts in a season since Fidrych was Mike Norris, who had five in 1980 (as a teammate of Rick Langford) at age 25.
  • Four times Fidrych pitched at least 11 innings; no pitcher of any age has had as many such games since.
  • He also faced 40 or more batters in six starts; no pitcher of any age has had more such games in a season since, and only four have had as many.
Fidrych fans

Fans loved The Bird in ’76

Fidrych’s first major league appearance on April 20 came in an unusually stressful situation. Houk called on the 21-year-old to pitch to Don Baylor in Oakland in the Tigers’ seventh game of the season, bottom of the ninth, tie game, one out, runners on the corners. (That’s how you break in a rookie?) Baylor singled, game over.

Fidrych’s next outing was in an exhibition game against the Reds in Cincinnati on April 29, a fundraiser for the Greater Cincinnati Knothole program; he started and pitched at least six innings (I can’t find a box score, the line score I found shows Jim Crawford relieved him in the seventh). His next regular season game was an inning of mop-up relief on May 5. That would be his last ever major league relief appearance. On May 10 he started another exhibition fundraiser against the Reds, this one at Tiger Stadium on behalf of amateur baseball programs in the area, and went five innings. He was roughed up for eight hits and five runs.

Five days after that he made his first regular season start…and a legend was born.

First start

From the Detroit Free Press, May 16, 1976

Fidrych held the Indians hitless until Buddy Bell singled to lead off the top of the seventh; he finished with a complete game two-hitter and a 2-1 win. Houk followed that up by using Fidrych to start yet another exhibition game, May 20 against the Tigers’ top farm team in Evansville, Indiana (none of the brief accounts of that game I’ve found show how long Fidrych pitched, but it was long enough to give up five hits and strike out four).

The rookie returned to facing American League competition on May 25 at Fenway Park; Carl Yastrzemski hit a two-run homer in the fourth and Luis Tiant blanked the Tigers, 2-0, with Fidrych working an eight-inning complete game.

Fidrych TSNIn his third major league start, on May 31, Fidrych pitched an 11-inning complete game. Houk left him in to pitch the entire 11th inning even though he gave up three hits, a walk and the go-ahead run (the Tigers came back to win in the bottom of the inning). He faced 47 batters — that’s right, two guys (Robin Yount and Don Money) batted against him SIX times. The last time a pitcher faced at least 47 batters was 1986, and that was knuckleballer Charlie Hough. For a non-knuckleballer, you have to go back to 1983 and 40-year-old Tommy John. Fidrych is the only pitcher to do it before his 22nd birthday since 1967.

Five days later, he pitched ANOTHER 11-inning complete game, facing 41 batters. No pitcher faced more than 36 batters in a game in the entire 2015 season; Fidrych topped that twice in a week, just over a month into his major league career when he was 21 years old, and would do it five more times that season. (For what it’s worth, the last time a major league pitcher faced at least 41 batters in a game was 2002.)


From the nationally televised win over the Yankees June 28, 1976

Six days later, complete game. Five days later, complete game. Five days after that he was lifted in the 8th –- and then he threw six straight complete games, including the nationally televised win over the Yankees that cemented his fame (you can watch it here) and an 11-inning shutout that came three days after he started and pitched two innings in the All-Star Game. (There have been only three shutouts of 11 innings or longer since then, the last of which was in 1990.)

There would be another stretch of six straight complete games in August, two of them going extra innings in which he faced 43 and 42 batters. And five of the six games — including both the extra-inning games — were thrown on just three days rest.

The last four of those games were as follows: complete game, four days later a 10-inning complete game (why the hell did Houk let him pitch to nine batters and give up four runs in the 10th?), four days later another complete game, four days later a complete game that he lost in the bottom of the 12th. That’s 39-1/3 innings in less than two weeks.

Fidrych finally showed he was human when he was knocked out in the fourth inning in his next start, but then he finished the season with five complete games in his last six starts (although he was knocked out in the third in the other one). He pitched at least seven innings in 26 of his 29 starts.

Fidrych S&SIn 1976 Fidrych started 13 games with just three days rest (and that doesn’t include his post-All-Star shutout)…the last pitcher to have that many was Tom Browning in 1988.  Fidrych completed 11 of those 13 starts, going 9-2 with a 2.61 ERA. But in eight starts with at least five days rest, he completed them all and had a 1.32 ERA in 75 innings. Wow. (Of course, that does include the 11-inning shutout that came six days after his last regular season start but only three days after the All-Star Game.)

Despite a workload that would be beyond what any pitcher — let alone one so young — has done for a generation now, the injury that started Fidrych’s road to early retirement wasn’t to his arm. It was torn cartilage in his knee from a fall in the outfield while shagging flies in spring training in 1977. But that injury may have led to his more serious arm injury because of changes to his pitching motion caused by the knee injury. At least that’s the way Fidrych saw it. Gary Smith wrote, in a 1986 profile of Fidrych for Sports Illustrated (that no longer appears to be online):

Nobody knew what caused the crippling pain [in his pitching arm], but many suspected it was Fidrych’s overeagerness to be a superstar pitcher again, that he’d begun throwing too hard too soon after he had injured the knee. “Maybe it was my stupidity,” he says. “I kept throwing. I didn’t want to give up. If you can’t perform, you’re gone, so you fool them as much as you can. I had to. I saw what was going on in my life.”

It’s common now to think Fidrych was never the same after his sensational rookie season. But that’s wrong. He started 1977 in the same groove. The spring training knee injury delayed his season debut, but his first start of 1977 came just 12 days later than his first start of 1976. And that first start after the injury was a complete game in which Fidrych faced 36 batters and allowed just one earned run.

Fidrych 1977

1977 headline

From the Detroit Free Press, May 28, 1977

He threw complete games in seven of his first eight starts. By that time he was 6-2 with a 1.83 ERA. He didn’t give up a home run in his first 66-1/3 innings. He faced 38 batters in each of those last two starts, with just three days rest between them. Performance-wise, he was every bit the pitcher he was in 1976 (at least through the end of August), if not better.

Fidrych Sport

Sport magazine, July 1977

Then he got the hell beat out of him in two starts, being knocked out in the sixth inning of each game, allowing 21 hits and 12 earned runs in 11-1/3 innings. He later came to believe he tore his right rotator cuff in the first of those two games, July 4 at Baltimore, although the injury wasn’t diagnosed as such until 1985. (In the 1986 SI piece, Gary Smith wrote Fidrych’s right shoulder popped “ten days after he returned from the disabled list,” which would be early June, which seems unlikely based on his performance.) On July 12 he was pulled while facing the fourth batter of the game and was done for the year. (Jim Crawford came in to relieve Fidrych and threw 8-1/3 shutout innings.) According to the next day’s Detroit Free Press, team doctor Clarence Livingood diagnosed Fidrych’s problem as “a tired arm.”

“It don’t hurt,” Fidrych said. “I only can’t throw.”

Fidrych didn’t have quite as much asked of him in 1977 as was the case in ’76. He never pitched more than nine innings in a game or faced more than 38 batters. He had more starts on four days rest than he had on three days. Still, he managed to pitch 69 innings in just over a month (34 days) once he started his season.

Fidrych was apparently back at full strength at the start of spring training in 1978. He discussed the effect of his 1977 injuries in an April 1978 Sports Illustrated story by Larry Keith:

“I was a different person,” the Bird says. “I had the bad leg and the bad arm and I was trying to get my head together. Everything I count on, my bread and butter, was missing, and it got me down. The doctors told me to relax, and some of the older players told me how they had come back from injuries, but I didn’t really know about myself until I went down to the instructional league in October. Then I knew for sure. I said, ‘Oh, wow! I can throw.’ “

He was the Tigers’ opening day starter and got a complete game win.

Fidrych 1978

From the Detroit Free Press, April 8, 1978

Four days later, another complete game win. But he was pulled after four innings of his third start, when his shoulder stiffened up. “I was going to stay out there until they knocked me out,” Fidrych said after the game, “but Ralph told me after the fourth inning that he was going to take me out. I guess it was a good thing he got me out of there before I hurt myself.”

“He said his wasn’t hurting, but when he threw, nothing happened,” Houk said. “He’s such a competitor, if I didn’t take him out, he would have kept going out there. And maybe he would have hurt himself. I’m certainly not going to take any chances with him.” (Not that you ever did, Ralph…)

1978 photo

From the Detroit Free Press, April 18, 1978. “The Tigers expect The Bird to be ready for his next turn Saturday.” His next major league appearance came 13 months later.

Fidrych would not pitch in a major league game again for more than a year. From then on he completed just one of 13 major league starts, going 2-6 with a 6.86 ERA.

But those last 13 starts came after Houk retired at the end of the 1978 season (he would return to the dugout with the Red Sox in 1981). During his time pitching for Houk, Fidrych completed 33 of 43 starts (76.7%) and posted a 27-13 record. He had a 2.47 ERA, allowing just 70 walks and 15 home runs in 353-1/3 innings. Of course, he had only 3.8 strikeouts per 9 innings, not a strong indicator of long-term success even if healthy. But he was certainly a remarkable pitcher in his time with Houk. And the way Houk used him was even more remarkable.

Here’s another way Ralph Houk was unusual in using his pitchers. Since 1967, a relief pitcher has worked 10 or more innings in a game only five times. Three of those were pitchers managed by Houk – for three different franchises:

  • Lindy McDaniel worked 13 innings in relief for the Yankees in 1973 (when he was 37) after Fritz Peterson suffered a leg injury in the second inning. That was the longest major league relief appearance since Eddie Rommel pitched 17 innings in 1932. McDaniel also had two relief outings of more than six innings in the three weeks prior to his marathon and pitched more than six innings in relief a total of five times that season. He worked 138-1/3 innings in relief that season in just 44 appearances (h also started three games and completed one!).
  • Jim Crawford (the man who pitched 8-1/3 innings in relief of Fidrych in 1977) went 10 innings for the Tigers in 1976. He entered the game in the first inning after starter Frank MacCormack walked three of the four hitters he faced (and threw two wild pitches) and took a no-hitter into the ninth before giving up a single to George Scott. Crawford pitched more than six innings in relief two other times that season.
  • Bob Stanley pitched 10 innings for the Red Sox in 1983, the last time a major leaguer pitched 10 or more innings in relief. Stanley pitched 168-1/3 innings in relief for Houk in 1982 and 145-1/3 in ’83. Only Mike Marshall (1973 and 1974) pitched more innings in a season without starting a game than Stanley did in 1982. And he did that in just 48 appearances, an average of more than 3-1/3 innings per relief appearance. That’s crazy off the charts; no other pitcher who has worked at least 20 games in a season without starting one has averaged more than 3 innings per appearance. Stanley is the last pitcher to work enough to qualify for the ERA championship in a season in which he didn’t start a game (and the others who did it all pitched significantly more games). In his career Stanley had 18 relief appearances of six innings or more, 11 of them for Houk.

In his first season managing the Tigers, 1974, Houk’s relievers had 16 appearances of six innings or longer; no team has had as many since 1941. John Hiller pitched 150 innings in relief for the ’74 Tigers (going 7-2/3 innings twice) with a record of 17-14, the most decisions in a season for a relief pitcher.

UPDATE: Pitchers who threw the most extra-inning games

I started this blog in 2009; I now have some additional resources so I thought I might revisit and revise some of my earlier posts. For instance, when I first wrote about pitchers who worked into extra innings,’s Play Index data base went back only to 1954. It now goes back to 1913, meaning I can paint a more complete picture.

Nine-inning games by pitchers are rare enough in the 21st Century, but extra-inning performances are all but extinct. It’s happened only six times in the 16 seasons from 2000-2015 (only Roy Halladay did it more than once in that period; he had two 10-inning games), and the last pitcher to do it as of this writing was Cliff Lee in 2012. But such games used to be much more common. Here are the pitchers who have gone at least 9-1/3 innings the most times from 1913-2015, with their records in those games (clicking “Ind. Games” will show you all of the games involved):

Pete Alexander 51 Ind. Games 32 15 1.71 51 6 1.02 PHI,CHC,STL
Walter Johnson 44 Ind. Games 22 20 1.31 44 7 0.94 WSH
Gaylord Perry 39 Ind. Games 12 11 1.93 17 1 0.93 SFG,CLE,TEX,SDP,SEA
Ted Lyons 39 Ind. Games 19 19 2.24 38 1 1.15 CHW
Red Faber 36 Ind. Games 21 13 2.20 34 1 1.09 CHW
Eppa Rixey 33 Ind. Games 18 15 1.83 32 0 1.16 PHI,CIN
Wilbur Cooper 33 Ind. Games 20 9 1.67 33 1 1.04 PIT,CHC
Bucky Walters 31 Ind. Games 20 9 1.73 26 2 1.16 PHI,CIN
Red Ruffing 28 Ind. Games 11 15 2.63 25 2 1.17 BOS,NYY
Stan Coveleski 28 Ind. Games 14 13 1.54 26 3 1.05 CLE,WSH
Warren Spahn 26 Ind. Games 11 12 1.79 22 0 0.99 BSN,MLN
Carl Hubbell 26 Ind. Games 10 14 1.83 24 3 0.94 NYG
Lefty Grove 26 Ind. Games 14 10 2.06 24 1 1.17 PHA,BOS
Earl Whitehill 25 Ind. Games 11 11 2.61 22 1 1.30 DET,WSH,CLE,CHC
Robin Roberts 25 Ind. Games 12 9 2.16 19 1 1.05 PHI,BAL,CHC
Jeff Pfeffer 25 Ind. Games 8 12 1.61 23 2 1.02 BRO,STL
Dolf Luque 25 Ind. Games 11 11 1.71 21 2 1.00 CIN,BRO
Bob Gibson 25 Ind. Games 9 11 1.73 19 1 1.08 STL
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 3/19/2016.

Grover Cleveland Alexander as a Philadelphia Phillie

The first two pitchers on the list are inner-ring Hall of Famers who spent the prime of their careers in the low-scoring dead ball era, at a time when pitchers were absolutely expected to finish what they started. Even so, what Grover Cleveland “Pete” Alexander accomplished was remarkable. From 1913 through 1928 he pitched into extra innings 51 times and completed every one of them…including a 17-inning game in 1920, three 14-inning games and four others in which he pitched at least 13 innings. By way of comparison, as of the start of the 2016 season the active pitcher with the most career complete games is C.C. Sabathia with 38 — none of which went extra innings.

And those 51 extra-inning complete games don’t even include the first two years of Alexander’s major league career. I can’t find how many times he pitched into extra innings in 1912 (although we know he started four games that went long), but as a rookie in 1911 Alexander got a decision in 11 extra-inning contests. So while we don’t know if he pitched into extra innings on any other occasions and was removed without getting a decision, we do know he pitched extra innings at least 62 times in his career, more than 10% of his career starts. We also know this wasn’t solely a factor of the dead ball era conditions, as 32 of those games came from 1920 onward, the last two of them coming when Alexander was 41 years old.


Walter Johnson didn’t seem to mind extra work

Second on the list is the great Walter Johnson, who, like Alexander, completed all his extra-inning starts from 1913 on. But those 44 extra-inning games don’t include the first six seasons of his career, in which he started 194 games and completed 87% of them. During those years Johnson started games that went into extra innings once in 1907, four times in 1908, six times in 1909, three times in 1910 and once in 1912 (I can’t readily find a record of Washington’s extra-inning games in 1911). He likely pitched into extra innings in the majority of those 15 games, but that’s just a guess, and I’m not up for digging up the box scores just now.

With at least 38 extra-inning wins (32 from 1913 on plus six in 1911), Alexander is the runaway leader in that category, at least from 1911 forward. More than 10% of his 373 career wins went extra innings. Johnson’s 20 extra-inning losses from 1913 on are the most for any pitcher in that period, and in those games (remember, all losses) he had a 1.99 ERA.

The (relatively) “modern” leader in extra-inning performances, by a wide margin, is Gaylord Perry, who had 39 such games over a 19-year period. Here are the pitchers who have worked extra innings the most times since 1960:

Player #Matching W L ERA CG SHO WHIP Tm
Gaylord Perry 39 Ind. Games 12 11 1.93 17 1 0.93 SFG,CLE,TEX,SDP,SEA
Bob Gibson 23 Ind. Games 9 10 1.72 19 1 1.04 STL
Jim Palmer 20 Ind. Games 5 5 1.52 10 0 0.89 BAL
Tom Seaver 19 Ind. Games 4 3 1.15 6 1 0.82 NYM,CHW
Phil Niekro 18 Ind. Games 7 5 2.14 12 0 0.98 ATL,NYY
Bert Blyleven 18 Ind. Games 7 4 1.63 9 4 1.02 MIN,TEX,PIT,CLE
Nolan Ryan 17 Ind. Games 6 6 1.86 9 1 1.07 CAL,HOU,TEX
Jim Kaat 17 Ind. Games 9 6 1.16 12 2 0.98 MIN,CHW,STL
Jerry Koosman 16 Ind. Games 3 6 1.45 2 1 1.01 NYM,MIN
Jim Bunning 16 Ind. Games 4 3 1.16 5 0 0.92 DET,PHI
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 3/19/2016.

Gaylord Perry as The Ancient Mariner…I do love those Seattle caps

Perry did have the advantage of the designated hitter rule for 14 of his extra-inning games, in that he never needed to be removed for a pinch-hitter. Or maybe that’s a disadvantage, if you factor in that he never got to face an opposing pitcher. His last three overtime appearances came when he was 43 years old, pitching for Seattle in 1982. (But Perry was not the oldest man to pitch extra innings; the remarkable Satchel Paige tossed a 12-inning shutout for the St. Louis Browns when he was 46! Team owner Bill Veeck rewarded him by telling Paige to order himself a new suit of clothes. Gregory H. Wolf has more about this game as part of the Society for American Baseball Research’s Games Project.)

Paige headline

Paige photo

From the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 7, 1952

How about the most extra-inning games in a season? We discovered Grover Cleveland Alexander had 11 in 1911 that won’t be included in Play Index. Since 1913, we find Johnson and Perry at the top of the list.

Rk Player Year #Matching W L ERA CG SHO Tm
1 Walter Johnson 1918 9 Ind. Games 6 3 1.21 9 2 WSH
2 Gaylord Perry 1972 8 Ind. Games 5 3 1.37 7 0 CLE
3 Al Javery 1943 8 Ind. Games 7 1 1.40 8 0 BSN
4 Red Faber 1922 8 Ind. Games 4 4 2.92 8 0 CHW
5 Stan Coveleski 1918 8 Ind. Games 3 5 1.03 8 0 CLE
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 3/19/2016.

Perry’s eight extra-inning games in 1972 (pre-designated hitter, by the way) are as many as all major league pitchers have had in the last 18 years combined (1998-2015).

Al Javery

Al Javery

Al Javery is the only man I’ve found to earn seven extra-inning wins in a season…he went at least 11 innings in five of them, including a 14-inning triumph. Javery went 17-16 for the 1943 Boston Braves and, not surprisingly, led the National League in innings pitched and batters faced. I don’t blame you if you’ve never heard of Javery; he finished his career with a 53-74 record and was pretty much done once the boys got home from World War II.

For tough-luck losers…pity Stan Coveleski, who won 22 games in 1918 but lost five extra-inning decisions, all in a period of less than eight weeks, in which he allowed a total of five earned runs. The only other pitcher since 1913 to lose as many extra-inning games in a season was Nate Andrews in 1943, when he led the National League with 20 losses despite finishing fifth in the league in ERA. He worked more than 11 innings in three of his overtime defeats. We know Pete Alexander also lost five extra-inning games in 1911. In more recent years, Bob Gibson lost four extra-inning games in 1969.

Next, the most extra-inning games pitched without allowing a run, since 1913. Note this doesn’t include games in which the pitcher either took a shutout into extra innings only to allow a run later, or left the game in extra innings with a shutout but saw a reliever allow an inherited runner to score.

Player #Matching W L CG SHO Tm
Walter Johnson 7 Ind. Games 6 0 7 7 WSH
Jim Perry 6 Ind. Games 2 0 2 2 CLE,MIN,DET
Bert Blyleven 6 Ind. Games 4 0 4 4 MIN,TEX,PIT
Pete Alexander 6 Ind. Games 4 0 6 6 PHI,CHC
Tom Seaver 5 Ind. Games 1 0 1 1 NYM
Don Sutton 4 Ind. Games 2 0 2 2 LAD
Nolan Ryan 4 Ind. Games 1 0 1 1 CAL,HOU,TEX
Dick Rudolph 4 Ind. Games 2 0 3 3 BSN
Jerry Koosman 4 Ind. Games 1 0 1 1 NYM
Bob Feller 4 Ind. Games 2 0 2 2 CLE
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 3/19/2016.

Notice Walter Johnson pitched seven of these games, all shutouts, but earned only six wins. One of those games was a 12-inning scoreless tie in 1919. Likewise, Grover Cleveland Alexander (I so prefer seeing his full name as opposed to “Pete”) pitched two extra-inning games that ended in 0-0 ties, both in 1913. Johnson and Alex are the post-1913 leaders in extra-inning shutouts. Alexander did not pitch an overtime shutout in 1911 or 1912, but I did some digging on Johnson and found he pitched an 11-inning shutout in 1908 and a 12-inning shutout in 1909 (the DAY AFTER he pitched four innings) to give him at least nine career extra-inning shutouts (still don’t know about 1911).

You’ll also notice Jim Perry and Tom Seaver each pitched four extra-inning games in which he did not allow a run but did not get the win…ouch.

In more recent times, Bert Blyleven is the leader with four extra-inning shutouts…and two of them came in consecutive starts in June 1976!

Date Tm Opp Rslt IP H R ER BB SO BF
1975-08-27 MIN MIL W 1-0 11.0 6 0 0 1 13 39
1976-06-21 TEX OAK W 1-0 10.0 1 0 0 4 8 36
1976-06-26 TEX CHW W 1-0 10.0 10 0 0 2 5 40
1978-04-26 PIT NYM W 1-0 11.0 6 0 0 4 8 42
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 3/19/2016.

Since 1913 only 13 other pitchers have tossed two or more extra-inning shutouts in a season (Alexander, naturally, is the only man with three, which he did in 1913, and Johnson is the only man with two in a season twice, 1918 and 1919). Aside from Blyleven, only Lefty Tyler did it in consecutive starts, in August 1914 for the “Miracle” Boston Braves. The first of Tyler’s games was a 13-inning scoreless tie, followed four days later by a 10-inning 1-0 victory. Blyleven is thus the only pitcher, at least since 1913, to have complete-game extra-inning shutout victories in back-to-back starts.

Hank Borowy, Blake Stein, Paul Wilson and the worst pitching performances in major league baseball history

This isn’t the first post I’ve written that was inspired by a recording of an old major league game broadcast I was listening to (previous examples are here and here). This time I was listening to the June 13, 1978 game between the Indians and the White Sox. Veteran knuckleballer Wilbur Wood started on the mound for Chicago, but after he gave up a single, triple, single and walk (with a wild pitch thrown in), Sox manager Bob Lemon decided Wilbur didn’t have it that day and removed him. Both the runners he left on base went on to score after reliever Pablo Torrealba entered the game.

Four batters faced, four runs allowed. That’s a pretty bad day at the office.

And it got me to wondering — what was the worst day at the office? Who faced the most batters while

  • not getting anyone out and
  • allowing each batter to reach base via hit, walk or hit by a pitch, with
  • each batter scoring (even after the pitcher who put him on base left the game)

I put’s Play Index to work, searching for pitcher games in which BF=R.

Hello, Hank Borowy.

BorowyBorowy (pronounced “buh-RO-ee”) was a Fordham University graduate who went 56-30 in three-and-a-half seasons with the Yankees during World War II. After he was sold to the Cubs in late July 1945 (shortly after he appeared on the cover of Baseball Digest as seen at right) he helped the Cubs win the pennant, going 11-2 with a 2.13 ERA (he was declared the National League ERA champion, despite pitching just 122-1/3 innings, because in those days eligibility was based on number of complete games). He remains the last Cubs pitcher to start a World Series game and the last Cubs pitcher to win one. Cubs skipper Charlie Grimm worked his ace hard in that ’45 Series…after Borowy pitched a six-hit shutout in Game 1, he came back four days later to start Game 5 and pitched five innings…the NEXT DAY he pitched four innings in relief to win Game 6…and two days later he started Game 7. He faced three batters, all of whom singled, before he was lifted. All three batters he faced scored…a foreshadowing of the Worst. Game. Ever.

The last time Borowy finished a season with a winning record was 1946. By August 1951 he was a 35-year-old hanging on as a relief pitcher with the Detroit Tigers. On August 14 Tiger manager Red Rolfe brought Borowy in to pitch the bottom of the tenth in a tie game at Cleveland, but a walk, a stolen base and a two-out single by Jim Hegan gave the Indians the victory. That left Borowy with a 5.02 season ERA.

It was about to get much worse.

On August 18 in St. Louis, the Tigers and Browns were tied 9-9 in the bottom of the seventh when, with one out, Bobby Young singled and Jim Delsing walked to put the go-ahead run in scoring position. Rolfe again entrusted a tie game to Borowy, sending him to the mound to replace Hal White. After that:

  • Matt Batts singled, scoring Young
  • Cliff Mapes singled, scoring Delsing
  • Hank “Bow Wow” Arft hit a three-run homer
  • Ken Wood singled
  • Fred Marsh singled
  • Bill Jennings walked to load the bases
  • Frank Saucier, pinch-hitting for pitcher Bob Mahoney, walked, scoring Wood for the only RBI of Saucier’s major league career (if Saucier’s name sounds familiar, he would become a footnote in major league history the next day, as we will see)
  • Young walked, scoring Marsh
  • Delsing walked, scoring Jennings to make the score 17-9

And after four straight walks — three with the bases loaded — Rolfe had finally had enough. Rolfe “never made a gesture to warm up a replacement until the contest was hopelessly lost and it was obvious that Borowy’s chance of ever retiring the side were [sic] slight,” Tommy Devine wrote in the next day’s Detroit Free Press.

Borowy headline

A headline in the Detroit Free Press, August 19, 1951

“Watch for Hank Borowy, veteran right-handed pitcher, to be cut adrift soon by the Tigers,” Devine wrote in another story in that edition. “Tiger manager Red Rolfe indicated his disgust at Borowy’s work by allowing him to take a cruel beating in a game in which the Tigers still had a chance.” Borowy remains the only man to pitch to nine or more batters in a major league game without getting any of them out.

There was still only one out when Borowy left the game. Rolfe replaced him with Fred Hutchinson, normally a starting pitcher who had worked eight innings four days earlier. Hutch got out of the inning, but not before allowing two singles that let all three runners Borowy left on base score. So the final line for Borowy: nine batters faced, nine runs allowed. His season ERA jumped from 5.02 to 7.17. The Browns’ 11 runs in that inning tied a team record, and their 20 runs in the game set a team mark.

Cleveland headline

From the Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 19, 1951

This game wasn’t the end of the line for Borowy, as Devine had predicted, but he pitched only five more times for the Tigers in 1951, all in lost causes, and had a 5.63 ERA in those games to end his major league career.

Borowy’s beatdown in St. Louis was overshadowed the next day…when 3’7″ Eddie Gaedel was sent to the plate as a pinch-hitter — for Frank Saucier — to start the bottom of the first inning for the Browns in the second game of a doubleheader.


From the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 20, 1951

What about pitchers who started a game? Who faced the most hitters without getting an out and allowing all of them to score?

Blake Stein was a 6’7″ rookie with the Oakland A’s in 1998. He started the August 31 game at Cleveland with a 5-7 record and an unimpressive 5.70 ERA, although he had pitched a two-hit shutout against the White Sox just 12 days earlier. Here’s how the bottom of the first went against the Indians: walk-hit batsman-walk-single-single-walk-single-single. That made it 6-0 Cleveland, and after A’s manager Art Howe lifted Stein, reliever Mark Mohler allowed both runners Stein left on base to score. Eight batters faced, eight runs allowed.

“Stein’s face as he strolled off the mound was a mask of disbelief and anguish,” Steve Kettmann wrote in the next day’s San Francisco Chronicle. “‘It was just one of those things where it kind of snowballed,’ he said. ‘In college [Spring Hill College in Alabama] I worked one-third of an inning once, but I got an out. Tonight I didn’t even get an out.'”

Stein got company in the eight-for-eight club seven years later in the person of Paul Wilson, who in 1994 had been the first player taken in baseball’s June amateur draft. Injuries kept Wilson from achieving the stardom predicted for him, and by 2005 he was a 32-year-old hanging on with his third major league team, the Reds. Wilson had a 1-2 record with a 5.25 ERA in his first six starts of the season going into a May 6 game against the Dodgers in Cincinnati. Here’s how his night went: hit batsman-homer-single-homer-walk-hit batsman-double-double. Relief pitcher Matt Belisle allowed the inherited runner to score.


From the Cincinnati Enquirer, May 7, 2005

“It was terrible,” Wilson said after the game. “I let the team down. I got my ass kicked. It was embarrassing.” He pitched just two more games in his major league career, losing both and allowing 12 runs in 10-1/3 innings.

Oddly enough, this was the second time Wilson had started a game and allowed eight runs without getting an out. It also happened on July 10, 2003, but on that occasion the leadoff batter reached base on an error. Likewise, two other starting pitchers also faced eight batters and allowed eight runs but were victimized by an error: Oakland’s Bill Krueger on June 25, 1984 and the Mets’ Bobby Jones on September 17, 1997…although in Jones’ case, he was the one who committed the error.

Looking at pitchers’ performances before and after a no-hitter

I remember the 1974 movie

I remember the 1974 movie “Earthquake” being the first movie with a $5 admission, at least where I was on Long Island. Must have been the Sensurround.

I live in the San Francisco Bay Area, earthquake country. Earthquakes are literally unpredictable. You have no way of knowing in advance when or where they will happen. I have the feeling baseball no-hitters are the same way, so I thought I would investigate the games that pitchers threw before their no-hitter, to see if there is anything that can be teased out that might be of some predictive value. While I was at it, I decided to look at games pitched after a no-hitter as well, to see if pitching a no-no has any implications for the next start.

The tool I’ll use in my analysis is “game score,” a measure developed by Bill James that I’ve written about earlier. Here’s Bill’s definition:

Start with 50 points. Add 1 point for each out recorded, (or 3 points per inning). Add 2 points for each inning completed after the 4th. Add 1 point for each strikeout. Subtract 2 points for each hit allowed. Subtract 4 points for each earned run allowed. Subtract 2 points for each unearned run allowed. Subtract 1 point for each walk.

Bill’s thought when he came up with this was that the average game score would be about 50, but of course there’s no inherent reason that should be the case.

Only it turns out that’s more or less true. In June 2014 Ben Lindbergh of Baseball Prospectus calculated the average game score for each season from 1950 through 2014. And the average of the season averages (as opposed to the average of all the starts in that time frame, which he didn’t calculate) was 50.8. (One note: Lindbergh limited his analysis to starts of nine innings or shorter, since the game score formula is generous to longer outings. I believe he did this to be more fair to the contemporary pitcher, who rarely goes nine innings anyway and essentially never works longer. In the 16-year period from 1950 through 1965, at the early end of Lindbergh’s analysis, there were 1,015 pitcher starts that went more than nine innings, an average of more than 60 a year. In the 16-year period from 2000 through 2015 there have been exactly six…and only one of those has come in the last eight seasons.)

Bill James introduced

Bill James introduced “game scores” in his 1988 Baseball Abstract

There is some notable variance in average game score from year to year. Lindbergh found that the average game score in 1968, when the average runs scored per game was the second lowest in history, was 56.2…whereas in 1999 and 2000, when teams averaged more than five runs a game, among the highest since 1900, the average game score was 47.4.

I used’s Play Index to calculate the average game score for all games (including starts of longer than nine innings) since 1914 through September 5, 2015…nearly 350,000 pitcher starts. (This process wasn’t nearly as tedious or time consuming as I feared.) And the average is 50.6, almost exactly what Lindbergh came up with, with a median of 51. (But I was surprised to find the mode — or the game score that has most frequently been recorded — is 55, followed by 52 and 54. The values from 50 to 59 are all pretty close in frequency. I’ll have a little more analysis at the end of this post.)

I’m giving you this context because I’m going to look at the game scores of pitchers in games before and after throwing their no-hitter, going back to 1914, the period for which has game scores in its database. I’m using the definition of “no-hitter” for this purpose as a complete game of nine innings or more, and I’m excluding the five no-hitters in the Federal League of 1914 and 1915, so American and National League games only. Jake Arrieta’s no-hitter on August 30, 2015 was the 206th such no-hitter during this time period, thrown by 176 different pitchers (here’s the complete list). Not all of them have “before” and “after” game scores, as 12 came in the pitcher’s first start of the season and nine came in his last start of the year.

Cliff Chambers (left) walked eight in his 1951 no-hitter. Only A.J. Burnett (9) and Jim Maloney (10 in 10 innings) walked more in a no-no.

Cliff Chambers (left) walked eight in his 1951 no-hitter. Only A.J. Burnett (9) and Jim Maloney (10 in 10 innings) walked more in a no-no.

Game scores of no-hitters range from 83 (Cliff Chambers in 1951 and Francisco Liriano in 2011) to 102 (Clayton Kershaw in 2014, the second-highest game score since 1914 for a nine-inning game; the highest was 105, Kerry Wood’s 1998 one-hitter in which he struck out 20 and walked no one). [ADDED 4/27/16: After this post was written, Max Scherzer had a 17-strikeout, no-walk no-hitter with a score of 104 on the next-to-last day of the 2015 season.] The average no-hitter game score is 91.5 and the median is 91. But what about the games before and after?

Let’s start by looking at the distribution of game scores. The chart below includes all games through September 5, 2015 (when Arrieta made the start following his no-hitter) along with the starts made immediately before a pitcher’s no-hitter and the starts immediately after. Note some of these are 10-point ranges and others near the median are 5-point ranges.

Game Score All Before
Below 0 258 0.1% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%
0 to 9 1760 0.5% 1 0.5% 1 0.5%
10 to 19 10417 3.0% 5 2.6% 4 2.0%
20 to 29 34186 9.8% 12 6.2% 13 6.6%
30 to 39 53181 15.3% 29 14.9% 21 10.7%
40 to 44 29971 8.6% 10 5.2% 17 8.6%
45 to 49 32268 9.3% 18 9.3% 13 6.6%
50 to 54 34909 10.0% 14 7.2% 17 8.6%
55 to 59 35020 10.1% 18 9.3% 24 12.2%
60 to 69 61580 17.7% 46 23.7% 40 20.3%
70 to 79 39071 11.2% 28 14.4% 31 15.7%
80 to 89 13677 3.9% 10 5.2% 13 6.6%
90 to 99 1419 0.4% 2 1.0% 3 1.5%
100 or higher 115 0.03% 1 0.5% 0 0.0%

(Note: 18 pitchers actually worked in relief in the appearance preceding their no-hitter, the last of whom was Jonathan Sanchez in 2009. And 11 pitchers followed their no-hitter by coming out of the bullpen, the latest being Clay Buchholz in 2007. But the chart above includes information about the most recent starts before and after.)

Pitchers are just as likely to toss a real stinker (game score less than 10) before or after a no-hitter as at any other time…it’s extremely unlikely in any event, but no less so adjacent to a no-hitter. But you’ll note pitchers are less likely to have what I’ll call a “poor” performance (game score less than 40) or a “below-average” performance (game score from 40 to 49) both before and after a no-hitter and are much more likely to have a “good” performance (game score 60 or higher).

Game Score All Before After
39 or lower 28.7% 24.2% 19.8%
40 to 49 17.9% 14.4% 15.2%
50 to 59 20.1% 16.5% 20.8%
60 or higher 33.3% 44.8% 44.2%

The average game score for a start before a no-hitter is 54.4 and the average for a start after is 55.5 — both above average. What kind of a game does that translate to? It so happens it almost exactly corresponds to what Tom Seaver did on either side of his 1978 no-hitter:

Date IP H R ER BB SO Game Score
Jun 10 9.0 11 4 4 1 6 54
Jun 21 7.0 5 3 3 4 4 55
Provided by View Original Table
Generated 9/5/2015.
Tom Seaver had his greatest success with the Mets but threw his only no-hitter after being traded to the Reds.

Tom Seaver had his greatest success with the Mets but threw his only no-hitter after being traded to the Reds.

Nothing special, but nothing to be ashamed of either. Of course, just how relatively good such performances are depends on the season context. In 1968 they would be below average and perhaps result in two losses. In 2000 they would be above average and likely result in two wins. (Seaver won the first of these games and lost the second…in most seasons these lines would probably yield a win and a loss, these game scores are close to the definition of a .500 pitcher.) Perhaps a more mathematically sophisticated analysis that I am capable of would compare each score to the norm for that season in determining whether, as a group, pitchers who throw no-hitters are indeed above average in their starts immediately preceding and following.

And maybe the most useful analysis would compare the performances not only to what is normal for the season but what is normal for that particular pitcher in that season. Because it could be one reason the average before-and-after game scores are above average is because pitchers who throw no-hitters are, as a group, above average. Now that may sound like it makes perfect sense — if you go a whole game without giving up a hit, you must be pretty good, right? Yet you don’t have to have a good career or be having a good season to throw a no-hitter. The list of no-hit pitchers includes George “Iron” Davis, who had a career record of 7-10; Virgil Trucks, a fine pitcher in other seasons who went 5-19 the year he pitched two no-hitters; Mike Warren, who had a career mark of 9-13 with a 5.06 ERA; Jose Jimenez, whose no-no came during a season in which he went 5-14 with a 5.85 ERA; Bud Smith, who won seven games in the big leagues; Philip Humber, who pitched a perfect game and finished his career with a 5.31 ERA; and, most dramatic of all, Bobo Holloman, who won only two other games in a major league career that lasted three months.

All that list does is show that a no-hitter really is unpredictable and can happen to almost anyone. But don’t make the mistake of jumping to the conclusion that no-hitters are truly random events. Because, when you look at the list of pitchers who have done it, it turns out to be a list largely made up of pretty good pitchers.

This display at the Baseball Hall of Fame commemorates Nolan Ryan's seven no-hitters for three different franchises.

This display at the Baseball Hall of Fame commemorates Nolan Ryan’s seven no-hitters for three different franchises.

For instance, 35 of the 206 no-hitters were thrown by pitchers who are in the Hall of Fame. That’s 17%, whereas Hall of Fame pitchers have only 6.6% of the starts since 1914. Granted that 35 is boosted by the seven no-hitters for Nolan Ryan, the four for Sandy Koufax and the three for Bob Feller…but hey, they’re Hall of Famers for a reason.

Or how about pitchers who were on the roster for the All-Star Game in the season in which they pitched a no-hitter? That accounts for 59 of the 179 no-hitters pitched since the year of the first All-Star Game in 1933, or 33%. I haven’t calculated the exact figure for how many of the total pitcher starts have been by All-Stars, but I’ll guarantee you it isn’t one out of three or anything close to it. (By the way, I determined what pitchers were on All-Star rosters by using this list.)

Why don’t we combine the two: no-hitters thrown by Hall of Famers in a season in which they made the All-Star Game? That accounts for 18 no-hitters, or 10% of the post-1933 total (and it includes only four of Ryan’s and two of Feller’s).

So it would appear excellent pitchers are disproportionately likely to pitch a no-hitter.

Then there’s the other category, what I’ll call “regular guys,” who neither made the Hall of Fame nor were All-Stars in the year in question. That’s not to disparage their skills; some of them might have been All-Stars had there been an All-Star Game before 1933, others wound up having fine seasons even though they weren’t selected as All-Stars (for instance, Jake Arrieta didn’t make the All-Star Game in 2015 but is looking like he’ll finish in the top three in the Cy Young Award voting) [ADDED 4/27/16: actually, he won the award]. Maybe some of the active pitchers on the list will wind up in the Hall of Fame. And some of these “regular guys” wound up being Bobo Holloman.

Let’s look at the average game scores for each of these categories:

Before After
Hall of Famer 57.7 60.0
All-Star 58.4 61.6
HoF + All-Star 58.1 65.9
Regular guy 52.0 53.1

Note that Hall of Famers and All-Stars typically have an above-average start both before and after their no-hitters, whereas “regular guys” are darn close to average both before and after their moment of fame. But maybe these numbers reflect what are typically average starts for pitchers in these categories. I suspect the “regular guy” numbers are a little bit higher than what the average game score for a non-Hall of Famer not having an All-Star season would be, and I suspect that’s because this group of “regular guys” is still a little bit better than the overall pool of “regular guys.” But I can’t prove that hypothesis.

I find it interesting that all these breakouts show the average start after a no-hitter being just a little bit better than the average start before. Does the no-hitter instill a smidgen of extra confidence in the pitcher going forward? Create trepidation for the next opponent? Or is it just Small Sample Size Theater?

In addition to pitching a no-hitter in 1919, Horce

In addition to pitching a no-hitter in 1919, Horce “Hod” Eller had two complete game wins in the Reds’ World Series victory over the “Black Sox.” After the season the major leagues outlawed Eller’s “shine ball” and he spent only two more seasons in the majors.

Three pitchers actually had a higher game score in the start after their no-hitter than they did in the no-hitter itself!

  • Hod Eller followed up his 1919 no-hitter with a 13-inning five-hit shutout, his game score going from 92 to 99. That gives him the best-ever game score in the start following a no-hitter and is an example of the impact on game scores of extra inning performances. By the way, the game after the no-hitter was an odd one, a scoreless tie through 12 innings before the visiting Reds score 10 runs (!) in the 13th.
  • Howard Ehmke had a no-hitter in 1923 followed by a one-hit shutout, his game score going from 87 to 89. Oddly enough, in the start prior to his no-hitter, Ehmke gave up six runs in five innings and had a game score of 24, the eighth-worst game score in a start just before a no-hitter.
  • Ken Holtzman, like Eller, followed up his no-hitter with an extra-inning performance in 1971, a 12-inning shutout in which he struck out 12. His game score improved from 89 to 96. In between those games, Cubs manager Leo Durocher used Holtzman in relief; two days after the no-hitter Leo brought Holtzman in to face two lefthanded batters with the winning run on base in the bottom of the 11th in Atlanta, but after Holtzman retired Ralph Garr for the second out of the inning, Mike Lum launched a game-ending three-run homer. And yet another oddity: four days before his no-hitter Holtzman was racked for eight runs in 3-2/3 innings and had a game score of 12, tied for the second-worst game score immediately before a no-hitter.

Two other pitchers had a game score in their next start that was the same as the one in their no-hitter: Ewell Blackwell in 1947 (both were 86) and Tommy Greene in 1991 (both were 90). In each case the follow-up game was a shutout.

The Sporting News paid tribute to Johnny Vander Meer's unprecedented and never-duplicated back-to-back no-hitters on page 3 of the June 23, 1938 issue. The front page was dominated by a story about Babe Ruth's return to the major leagues as a coach for the Brooklyn Dodgers.

The Sporting News paid tribute to Johnny Vander Meer’s unprecedented and never-duplicated back-to-back no-hitters on page 3 of the June 23, 1938 issue. The front page was dominated by a story about Babe Ruth’s return to the major leagues as a coach for the Brooklyn Dodgers.

Two pitchers actually had a better game score in the start before their no-hitter. Of course, in the case of Johnny Vander Meer, the start before his no-hitter on June 15, 1938 was also a no-hitter, on June 11. The game score of the first was 88 and the second 86. These games came during a remarkable six-start streak for Vander Meer in which he had an 0.65 ERA and gave up just 17 hits in 55 innings. He gave up only one run in each of the other four starts, and his game scores were all 70 or higher. (The record for the longest streak of 70+ game scores is nine.)

The other pitcher whose no-hitter was a “letdown” was Max Scherzer. On June 14, 2015, Scherzer pitched a one-hit shutout in which he walked one and struck out 16 for a game score of 100, the best ever in the start preceding a no-hitter. (The only baserunner came on a hit batsman with two out in the ninth inning.) Six days later he threw a no-hitter in which he walked no one and struck out 10 for a score of 97. I can’t verify if that’s the highest ever combined game scores for two consecutive starts, but I can say there are only 233 starts with a game score of 97 or better in the entire post-1914 database through September 5, 2015 (0.07% of the total), and Scherzer has two of them. Walter Johnson had nine such games just in the period of his career from 1914 forward, with three of them in 1918, and Nolan Ryan had seven such games (all 99 or higher), three in 1990, but neither they nor anyone else has had game scores of 97 or higher in consecutive starts.

Aside from Scherzer and Vander Meer, what other pitchers had outstanding outings before a no-hitter?

Dennis Eckersley in that all-red Cleveland uniform...

Dennis Eckersley in that all-red Cleveland uniform…

Dennis Eckersley, who earned his spot in the Hall of Fame as a relief ace, was an excellent starting pitcher early in his career. His 1977 no-hitter came five days after he pitched a 12-inning complete game in a 2-1 win (game score 92)…Hall of Famer Dazzy Vance pitched a one-hit shutout (game score 91) five days before his 1925 no-hitter (he got rocked for nine runs in his next start, game score 24)…Before pitching his famous no-hitter in 1934 (brother Dizzy had pitched a three-hit shutout in the opening game of the doubleheader), Paul Dean had given up one run in 11 innings five days earlier (game score 87). And three days before that, he had pitched a 12-inning shutout (game score 94). In those three games he allowed one run and gave up 12 hits in 32 innings. Dean was a “regular guy” by my earlier definition who had an excellent season. His streaks of three straight game scores of 87+ and four straight of 84+ are both tied for the longest ever, at least since 1914….Hall of Famer Ted Lyons pitched his 1926 no-hitter five days after pitching a 10-inning three-hit shutout (game score 86)…Dave Righetti, who like Eckerlsey gained greater fame as a relief pitcher, tossed his 1983 Independence Day no-hitter on the heels of a five-hit shutout (game score 86)…And while the wheels came off for Johan Santana soon after pitching the first (and at this writing only) no-hitter in Mets history, six days before that he had pitched a four-hit shutout (game score 86).

One other pitcher worth mentioning here: Lew Burdette is the only man to pitch a shutout in the starts both before and after his no-hitter (in 1960), but because he didn’t strike out many, his game scores weren’t super high (78 before, 77 after).

Now for the worst games preceding a no-hitter…and the worst of all was one that prompted me to write this post in the first place. In researching pitchers who had the biggest difference in game scores in consecutive starts, I came across Bill Dietrich, who had an ugly start just three days before his 1937 no-hitter. In the earlier game he was blasted for 10 runs in just 3-1/3 innings for a game score of 0 (yes, zero). In my earlier post I asked, “was that the worst performance ever in the start before a no-hitter?” Now I can answer definitively, yes, at least since 1914.

Allie Reynolds' two no-hitters in 1951 were very similar, but his starts preceding them were quite different.

Allie Reynolds’ two no-hitters in 1951 were very similar, but his starts preceding them were quite different.

Here are some of the others who threw duds before their glory: tying Ken Holtzman for the second-worst pre-no-hitter score was Jim Abbott, whose 1993 no-hitter came six days after he gave up seven runs and 10 hits in 3-2/3 innings (game score 12)…Fernando Valenzuela gave up eight runs in 5-1/3 innings (game score 16) five days before pitching a no-hitter in 1990Allie Reynolds pitched two no-hitters in 1951, with a very different lead-in to each. Five days before his first no-hitter, he was knocked out after giving up six runs in just one inning (game score 18; the next day manager Casey Stengel used Reynolds in relief and Allie gave up two runs while getting just one out). In his start prior to the no-hitter he threw in his last start of the season, Reynolds gave up just one run in a complete game win with a game score of 73…After a start in which he gave up seven runs in three innings in 2011 (game score 19), Francisco Liriano rallied to toss a no-hitter, although with six walks and just two strikeouts, Liriano had a game score of 83 to tie Cliff Chambers for the worst game score in a no-hitter, at least since 1914….In the start prior to the first of his seven career no-hitters in 1973, Nolan Ryan retired just one batter and gave up five runs (game score 22). The next day, manager Bobby Winkles used Ryan to get a two-inning save, the last and longest of the three regular-season saves Ryan is credited with in his career (he also earned one in Game 3 of the 1969 World Series).

Tim Lincecum gets a shower after his second no-hitter in 2014

Tim Lincecum gets a shower after his second no-hitter in 2014

And for the worst starts after a no-hitter…Carlos Zambrano was walloped for eight runs in 1-2/3 innings (game score 9) five days after his 2008 no-hitterBob Forsch followed his 1978 no-hitter by giving up seven runs in one inning (game score 10)…Tim Lincecum had a 4.61 season ERA prior to his 2013 no-hitter in which he threw 148 pitches, then next time out nine days later gave up eight runs in 3-2/3 innings (game score 12). Lincecum did not pitch a no-hitter in the two seasons in which he won a Cy Young Award, his two no-hitters came in years in which his final ERAs were 4.37 and 4.74…Dave Stewart struck out 12 in his 1990 no-hitter, but five days later he struck out nobody in giving up six runs in 2-1/3 innings (game score 16)…Philip Humber, mentioned here earlier, followed up his 2012 perfect game by giving up nine runs in five innings five days later (game score 17)…Bob Feller pitched baseball’s only Opening Day no-hitter in 1940, then gave up six runs in three innings five days later (game score 22)…Five days after his 1922 no-hitter, Jesse Barnes managed to retire just one of the five batters he faced before getting the hook (his game score was as high as 28 only because he started with 50 and didn’t pitch long enough to do serious damage).

My takeaway from looking at all this? There’s no way of knowing a no-hitter is coming based on a pitcher’s previous start, but (duh) better pitchers have a better chance of pitching one. And, while either might happen, don’t expect either continued greatness or a total collapse in the start after a no-hitter. Most likely the pitcher will go back to being who he is, good, bad or mediocre.

Before I wrap up, a few notes about the distribution of all game scores since 1914. From -5 to 52, game scores rise in an almost perfect progression, that is, there are more game scores of -4 than -5, more of -3 than -4, etc. There are only two exceptions to the steady increase. There’s a decline from 35 (5505) to 36 (5353), but then 37 is higher than 35. There’s also a decline from 43 (6144) to 44 (6138), but then 45 is higher than 43. The totals bounce around a bit from 52 to 55:

52 7089
53 6961
54 7077
55 7131

But then a steady decline is in effect from 55 to 97, with one exception, from 58 (6877) to 59 (7022), with 60 then lower than 58.

From Jekyll to Hyde (or vice versa): major league pitchers who go from sublime to ridiculous in consecutive starts

I can never remember whether Jekyll or Hyde was the good one, but Chris Rusin was both in a six-day period.

I can never remember whether Jekyll or Hyde was the good one, but Chris Rusin was both in a six-day period.

On August 16, 2015, Colorado Rockies lefthander Chris Rusin shut out the Padres on five hits, a feat made even more impressive by the fact that it came in the hitters’ paradise of Denver’s Coors Field. Six days later Rusin returned to the mound at Coors Field to face the Mets and was pulled from the game before he could retire a batter in the third inning, allowing 11 runs. The contrasting results led me to wonder three things:

  1. What’s the greatest difference in runs allowed between consecutive starts by a pitcher?
  2. What’s the most runs a pitcher has allowed in his next start following a shutout?
  3. What’s the greatest difference in “game scores” between consecutive starts by a pitcher? (“Game score” was developed by Bill James in an effort to roughly rate the quality of a starting pitcher’s performance; I’ve written more about it here. Rusin went from a score of 80 in his shutout to -11 in his follow-up, for a difference of 91.)

If I had some ability to manipulate the data accumulated by the volunteers at Retrosheet, I might be able to definitively answer questions 1 and 2, at least for the years in their database. Retrosheet doesn’t list game scores, but does; alas I can’t figure out a way to use their spectacular Play Index tool to answer question 3.

So I’m not likely to come up with the definitive answers to these questions in this post. But I have determined Rusin does not hold any of the records in question.

For assistance, I posed these queries to my fellow members of the Society for American Baseball Research, and I got a response from Gerry Myerson, who brought up a pitcher who topped Rusin on one of those categories: Tom Sheehan.

Sheehan PeoriaSheehan reached the major leagues in July 1915 when the Philadelphia A’s purchased him from a minor league team in Peoria. The A’s had won the American League pennant in four of the previous five seasons, but after their 1914 World Series loss to the Braves, A’s owner/manager Connie Mack said goodbye, in one way or another, to stars Eddie Collins, Home Run Baker, Eddie Plank, Chief Bender and Jack Coombs; other stars would be waived or sold during the 1915 season, and the A’s ended the year with a dismal 43-109 record. The 21-year-old Sheehan provided a brief ray of sunshine, winning his first three starts, but then the wheels came off and he lost eight of his last nine starts. (The misery continued in 1916, when Sheehan posted a 1-16 record — including an 0-14 record as a starter — for an A’s team that somehow managed to be even worse than it was in 1915, going 36-117.)

In his next-to-last start in 1915, Sheehan allowed four runs in eight innings in a loss to the Tigers. (The A’s took the lead after Sheehan was removed for a pinch-hitter in the eighth and his successor on the mound allowed the winning run; under modern scoring rules Sheehan would not have been designated the losing pitcher, but he was then.) Six days later, in his next start (and last of the season), manager Mack left Sheehan in to absorb a 20-5 loss at the hands of Washington in the second game of a doubleheader. This was during the deadball era; the Senators averaged less than 3.6 runs in their other games that season. Sheehan faced 52 batters in pitching the complete game (played in just 1 hour 50 minutes), and it could have been worse, except the Senators were the home team and didn’t bat in the ninth.

The game was described in the next day’s Philadelphia Inquirer as:

…the real farce, not only of the day, but of the season. It might not be too much to characterize it as one of the real jokes of all professional baseball history hereabouts. Sheehan was hit hard, but it was the weird fieldling behind him that was responsible for more than half of the bingles that will go to fatten the records of the Nationals…Mack’s fielders, including several who have seen service in world’s championship classics, played in a half-hearted manner typical of a team that is a hopeless last, with nothing to gain in battle, one way or the other. They ran circles around fly balls, stepped on their own feet in going after grounders, and never exerted themselves on the base paths.

Tom Sheehan pitched until he was 40 and stayed in the game as a minor league manager and scout. At age 66 he replaced Bill Rigney as manager of the San Francisco Giants on June 18, 1960.

Tom Sheehan pitched until he was 40 and stayed in the game as a minor league manager and scout. At age 66 he replaced Bill Rigney as manager of the San Francisco Giants on June 18, 1960, and he stayed in baseball until he was 84.

The official box score that appears on Retrosheet shows the A’s with eight errors and the Nats with 23 hits, but the box scores that appeared in the Inquirer and the Washington Evening Star listed the A’s with TEN errors and Washington with 21 hits (apparently errors credited to left fielder Wally Schang and shortstop Larry Kopf were actually hits for Carl Sawyer and Horace Milan; Schang and Kopf finished with two errors each anyway, and catcher Cy Perkins had three).

So with a difference of 16 runs allowed between consecutive starts, Sheehan becomes the leader that I know of in the category. But he doesn’t pass Rusin in question 3, as the difference in his game scores was “just” 82 (from 53 to -29).

Is Sheehan’s 16 a record? We can use Play Index to check back to 1914…and it turns out only 10 pitchers have allowed 16 runs in a start in that period.

Player Date Tm Opp Rslt IP H R ER BB SO
George LeClair 1914-08-16 PBS IND L 6-21 8.0 24 21 20 8 0
Tom Sheehan 1915-09-29 (2) PHA WSH L 5-20 8.0 23 20 12 4 3
Hod Lisenbee 1936-09-11 PHA CHW L 2-17 8.0 26 17 14 4 1
Howard Ehmke 1923-09-28 BOS NYY L 4-24 6.0 21 17 16 4 6
Chubby Dean 1940-09-28 (1) PHA BOS L 4-16 8.0 19 16 14 5 1
Flint Rhem 1933-08-04 PHI NYG L 1-18 8.0 21 16 15 3 1
Hugh McQuillan 1927-09-11 (2) BSN CIN L 5-16 6.2 17 16 15 3 2
Ted Lyons 1924-07-21 CHW WSH L 2-16 8.0 18 16 14 5 3
Jimmy Ring 1922-08-25 PHI CHC L 23-26 3.1 12 16 6 5 2
Elmer Myers 1917-08-21 PHA CLE L 3-16 8.0 21 16 13 4 1
Provided by View Play Index Tool Used
Generated 8/28/2015.

Now it’s just a matter of going through the game logs of those pitchers to see what they did in the starts before and after.

(The 20th Century record for most runs allowed by a starting pitcher predates the Play Index database…Al Travers, later a Jesuit priest, gave up 24 runs to the A’s when he was called off the Philadelphia sandlots to pitch for the Tigers in 1912 after the entire Tiger team went on strike. Gary Livacari tells the story here. Travers never played another major league game.)

If the team designation PBS doesn’t ring a bell next to George LeClair, that’s because it’s the Pittsburgh Stogies (also known as the Rebels) of the Federal League, which was recognized as a third major league in 1914 and ’15. The day after LeClair was pounded for 21 runs in his second major league start (he had pitched in a Class C league in 1913), the Pittsburgh Press reported, “Manager [Rebel] Oakes did not have a chance to take Leclair out of the box for the reason that he had no one to relieve him and the Canadian boy had to stay in and take his punishment.” Oakes must have been desperate, as he let LeClair pitch a complete game even though he had used him to pitch the ninth inning the previous day.

Aside from this game, LeClair was quite effective in 1914; in his other 21 appearances his ERA was 2.45 (this one blowout left his season ERA at 4.01!). In his start prior to the 21-run game he allowed three runs in seven innings, and in his next start he gave up three runs in a nine-inning complete game, although that was more than a month later, after several relief appearances. So going in either direction he had a difference of 18 runs allowed between consecutive starts, even more than Sheehan, although Sheehan did not have intervening relief appearances.

LeClair’s game score in his 21-run game was -56, the lowest in the post-1914 database. On October 6 he allowed just one run in 10 innings in a game against Baltimore and had a game score of 80. It looks like the difference of 136 between his highest and lowest game scores of the season is the greatest of anyone; Joe Oeschger had a difference of 131 between his 26-inning game in 1920 (a game score of 153, the highest ever) and a game on August 27 that year that scored a 22.

Hod Lisenbee was another pitcher who was left in by Connie Mack to absorb a pounding, giving up a post-1901 record 26 hits to the White Sox while allowing 17 runs. He came back four days later and gave up eight runs in 4-1/3 innings; in his previous start he had allowed five runs in five innings.

Headline in the Boston Herald after Howard Ehmke gave up 11 runs to the Yankees in 1923

Headline in the Boston Herald after Howard Ehmke gave up 11 runs to the Yankees in 1923

Howard Ehmke was a 20-game winner for the last-place 1923 Red Sox, but he lost both his starts after winning his 20th. On September 24 he gave up six runs to the Browns, then the Yankees clubbed him for 17 runs in just six innings — 11 of them in his final inning of work — in his last start September 28. “Howard is immense when he’s good,” Burton Whitman wrote in the next day’s Boston Herald, “but something else again when he’s bad.” 20-year-old Lou Gehrig had three doubles and a single for the Yankees, driving in four runs, in just his second major league start. Earlier in September Ehmke had pitched a no-hitter against the A’s followed four days later by a one-hitter against the Yankees. He had five hits of his own in the two games while allowing just one! (I learned that tidbit from the splendid researcher Tom Ruane, who included it in one of his fascinating “retro-reviews” on

Chubby Dean — yet another pitcher Connie Mack allowed to be treated like a piñata! He allowed 16 runs in his last start of the 1940 season, and in his previous appearance nine days earlier he gave up 13 runs in a complete game. Is Dean the only pitcher in history to give up double-digit runs in consecutive starts? (Wait, I found another one…Pat Caraway, who led the American League with 24 losses for the 1931 White Sox, gave up 11 runs in 4-2/3 innings on July 23 and came back three days later to allow 13 runs in just two innings. That’s the shortest outing for any pitcher who’s given up 13 runs, starter or relief, at least since 1914. And wait…Bill Sherdel did it THREE starts in a row in 1929, giving up 10 runs on June 29, 13 runs on July 3 and 10 runs on July 6.)

Chubby wasn’t even Mr. Mack’s favorite whipping boy in 1940…George Caster, who led the league in losses with 19, pitched complete games in which he allowed 14 and 10 runs, and gave up 10 runs in just four innings in another game. He had two complete games in which he allowed nine runs and two other appearances in which he allowed nine. (And yet one of his four wins was a complete game in which he beat the eventual pennant winners, Detroit, 3-1. Go figure.) Buck Ross and Porter Vaughan also had complete games in which they allowed 11 and 10 runs, respectively.

Flint Rhem's 14 losses for the 1933 Phillies were a career high. He had a 105-97 record over 12 seasons.

Flint Rhem’s 14 losses for the 1933 Phillies were a career high. He had a 105-97 record over 12 seasons.

Flint Rhem…here’s a man with a bigger difference in consecutive-start game scores than Chris Rusin! On July 30, 1933, he went the distance for the Phillies in defeating the Dodgers, 3-1, at Ebbets Field. Five days later he pitched the first eight innings against the Giants, allowing 16 runs, in a game the Phils lost 18-1. Nine of the runs against Rhem came in his last inning on the mound, which included a bases-loaded triple by Giants pitcher Carl Hubbell, the last of two triples the Hall of Famer hit in his 16-year major league career. Perhaps Rhem was unsettled by an incident that was cryptically reported in the next day’s New York Times: “Umpire Dolly Stark found fault with Rhem’s stance on the hill in the third [inning] and made him correct it.”

At any rate, Rhem went from a game score of 70 on July 30 to a -24 on August 4, a difference of 94. That’s better than Chris Rusin. But is it the biggest difference between consecutive starts ever? Ah, again we turn to the 26-inning man Joe Oeschger, who followed up his 153 with a 32 in his next start (12 days later, after his arm recovered) for a difference of 121.

There have been only 13 games since 1914 in which a pitcher allowed 16 or more runs, and Rhem pitched in two of them. While pitching for the Cardinals Rhem gave up eight runs before being knocked out in the first inning of a game on June 22, 1925; he was relieved by Johnny Stuart, who went the rest of the way and allowed the Pirates to score 16 more runs, making him one of only three pitchers in the post-1914 database to allow 16 runs in a relief appearance.

Hugh McQuillan‘s pounding came in the last game of his major league career. In his previous start he had lasted just three innings and allowed four runs. But in the start before that, on August 30, he pitched an 11-inning four-hitter against the Reds, winning 2-1. His game score in that game was 83, 106 points better than the -23 he posted in allowing 16 runs less than two weeks later.

Ted Lyons is the only Hall of Fame pitcher who ever gave up 16 runs in a start. In his previous start he had allowed six. His next start wouldn’t come until more than a month (and nine relief appearances) later, and he gave up nine runs in that one, although he won.

A headline from the Philadelphia Inquirer of August 26, 1922

A headline from the Philadelphia Inquirer of August 26, 1922

Jimmy Ring had the shortest pitching appearance of any starter who allowed at least 16 runs, as he was knocked out in the fourth inning of what went on to be the highest-scoring game in major league history, a 26-23 win by the Cubs over the Phillies on August 25, 1922 in Chicago. The Cubs led 25-6 after four innings before the visitors rallied to actually put the tying run on base in the ninth. Sixteen of the 28 batters Ring faced scored! But only six of those runs were earned, thanks to two errors in the Cubs’ 10-run second inning. Ring is one of only nine pitchers in the post-1914 database to give up at least 10 unearned runs in a game.

In the starts both immediately before and immediately after Ring’s pounding, he allowed just three runs. But two starts before his debacle in Chicago, Ring yielded 14 runs in a loss to the Pirates. That makes him the only pitcher, at least in the post-1914 database, to give up at least 14 runs twice in a season. (Only two other pitchers gave up 14 runs in a game twice over the course of their careers: Milt Watson — yet another victim of Connie Mack’s willingness to watch his pitchers get lit up, the only pitcher aside from Ring to give up at least 14 runs twice as a starter — and Carl Doyle, who didn’t pitch even five innings in either of his games, one of which was in relief.)

The last pitcher on the list is yet another Mack managee, Elmer Myers, who was a teammate of Tom Sheehan’s on those pathetic 1916 A’s. Myers’ disaster came in 1917, two days after a start in which he allowed five runs in one inning (and he pitched in relief on the day between that start and his 16-run shredding). In his next start he was roughed up for nine runs.

Okay, so we seem to have the answer to who had the biggest difference in runs allowed between consecutive starts…or answers, either George LeClair (18) or, if you don’t like the Federal League or don’t like relief appearances between starts, Tom Sheehan (16). And we’ve found Joe Oeschger (121) has the biggest difference between game scores in consecutive starts.

Still up for grabs is whether the 11 runs Chris Rusin gave up in his next start after a shutout is a record. Play Index shows 394 times, going back to 1914, that a starting pitcher game up 11 runs or more. I looked at all those pitchers, checked to see if they threw a shutout in the same season, and then checked their game logs for the year to see if they had their rotten game right after a shutout.

And believe it or not, there was a pitcher who outdid Rusin. And guess what? It was another one of Connie Mack’s pitchers!

Bill Dietrich

Bill Dietrich

Bill Dietrich, who began wearing glasses at the age of eight, won just two of his first 12 starts for the last-place 1935 A’s. After a particularly rough outing on July 20 in which he gave up seven runs and got knocked out in the first inning, Mack sent him to the bullpen for a couple weeks, but when he moved back into the rotation Dietrich continued to struggle. He gave up 11 runs on August 6, seven runs on August 10 and seven runs again on August 19. (Of course, pitching for Mack, he went the distance in all three games.) There was no reason to expect anything better when Dietrich took the mound in Cleveland on August 22. James Isaminger described what happened next in The Sporting News issue of August 29:

Dietrich has had a very bad year, both as starting and relief pitcher [he went into the Cleveland game with a 5-10 season record and a 5.29 ERA], and Mack had about given up on him. But on August 22, he stepped out in Cleveland to blank the Indians with six hits. The slightest wavering on his part would have been fatal, for only one run was scored in this game. The A’s made it in the second inning…

Dietrich not only won the headlines that game but he also won a costly electric refrigerator. There was a convention of electric ice box men in Cleveland during the series and that afternoon the convention men promised their best ice box to the winning pitcher and Bill grabbed it.

Alas, the shutout was not the start of a hot streak for Dietrich. Four days later he pitched his fifth straight complete game…but he allowed 13 runs (on 17 hits and eight walks) to the Tigers, in just eight innings. And at least back to 1914, that’s the most runs any pitcher has allowed in his next start after a shutout. Dietrich’s game scores went from 78 to -7, a difference of 85.

Get this: two days after Dietrich was lit up for 13 runs (and pitched eight innings), still in Detroit, Mack brought him back to pitch seven innings in relief — and he gave up eight runs. Dietrich made just one more start the rest of the season, and Mack mercifully pulled him after he gave up seven runs in four innings.

From the Cleveland Plain Dealer of June 2, 1937

From the Cleveland Plain Dealer of June 2, 1937

Oddly enough, Dietrich had a completely opposite reversal of fortune two years later. He changed teams twice in 1936, going to the Senators on waivers in July after he got off to a horrible start and then going to the White Sox on waivers just three weeks later after he had fared even worse for Washington. In his second start of 1937 he was roughed up for 10 runs and knocked out in the fourth inning, leaving him with a season ERA of 10.12. Three days later he came back and pitched a no-hitter against the Browns (his game scores went from 0 to 90; research project for another time — was that the worst performance ever in the start before a no-hitter?). (ADDED 9/21/15: The answer is yes…I have details here.)

Dietrich wound up spending 16 years in the majors, pitching his last game at age 38, and finished with 108 wins and 128 losses. He pitched for the White Sox through World War II; I don’t know whether it was his eyesight that kept him out of the military or what. According to his 1978 obituary in The Sporting News, Dietrich’s “temper occasionally got him into trouble.” If they mention your temper in your obituary, you clearly had some kind of reputation.

ADDED 9/21/15: Jeff Samardzija had a Dietrich-like reversal in 2015…after giving up 10 runs in just three innings on September 15, he pitched a one-hit shutout, facing just 28 batters, on September 21. His game scores went from -3 to 91, an even bigger jump than Dietrich.


Not the Phil Collins who pitched for the Phillies in 1931

Not the Phil Collins who pitched for the Phillies in 1931

A few other pitchers caught my eye in my search…George Blaeholder pitched three shutouts for the last-place 1933 St. Louis Browns, including an 11-inning gem. He also gave up 11 runs or more twice. Neither came after a shutout, but both came after a good performance. He gave up just one run in a complete-game win over the White Sox on June 12, then six days later got torched for 14 runs by the eventual pennant winners, Washington. On July 9 he beat the Red Sox 9-2, and the Yankees blew him up for 11 runs five days later….Phillies’ hurler Phil Collins had a similar reversal of fortune in 1931 when he beat the Cardinals 2-1 on May 11, then coughed up 14 runs against the Cubs five days later….Tom Seaton pitched seven shutouts among his 25 wins for Brooklyn in the 1914 Federal League but also had starts in which he allowed 13 and 12 runs.

Dave Parker’s remarkable 26 assists in 1977…and Roberto Clemente’s 27 in 1961

Commissioner Bowie Kuhn gave Dave Parker the All-Star Game MVP award in 1979 on the basis if two great throws.

Commissioner Bowie Kuhn gave Dave Parker the All-Star Game MVP award in 1979 on the basis of two great throws.

In doing some research on Dave Parker, I realized he had an outstanding accomplishment in 1977 that has been pretty much ignored or forgotten. Playing right field for the Pirates that year, Parker had 26 assists — no major league outfielder has had that many in the almost 40 seasons since, and the last who had more was Parker’s Pittsburgh predecessor Roberto Clemente, who had 27 in 1961. (Clemente, in turn, had the most of anyone since Washington’s Stan Spence had 29 in 1944.) Dave Winfield, who finished second in the National League in assists in ’77, had “only” 15. Parker also took part in nine double plays in 1977; the only outfielder who has been involved in more since 1929 (!) was Del Unser, who was part of 10 double plays as a rookie with the Senators in 1968.

Parker had a well-earned reputation for having a superb arm, and while he never had anywhere near 26 assists or led the league in any other season (perhaps because his reputation made runners cautious), he ranked among the top three NL right fielders in assists for five straight years (1976-80) and burned his way into the national consciousness with two incredible throws in the 1979 All-Star Game at Seattle’s Kingdome that earned him the game’s Most Valuable Player honor.

Click the image below for a longer look at the throw to the plate he made…he threw it from deep right field, without a cutoff man, and Gary Carter caught it shoulder-high.

Using Retrosheet’s play-by-play and’s defensive game logs, I looked for the details of all 26 of Parker’s 1977 assists. Here’s some of what I found.

First a little context…outfield assists were notably more common in 1977 than they are today, perhaps because the increased use of statistical analysis has made teams more risk-averse on the bases. Even though there were only 26 teams in 1977, compared to 30 in 2014, there were 13.5% more outfield assists in 1977. On a per-inning basis, there were 32.5% more assists in 1977.

Dave Parker on the cover of The Sporting News, June 11, 1977

Dave Parker on the cover of The Sporting News, June 11, 1977

One of Parker’s 26 assists in 1977 was on a force out. I have no idea exactly how many outfielder-assisted force outs there are, but there can’t be many. Here’s how it happened for Dave. On April 23 at Shea Stadium, the Pirates took a one-run lead into the bottom of the ninth. Ed Kranepool led off with a single, to put the tying run on base, and Felix Millan ran for him. Paul L. Montgomery explained what happened after that in the next day’s New York Times: “John Stearns, the next batter, dropped a ball into right field in front of Parker but Millan, thinking the ball was catchable, held up and was forced at second by Parker’s strong throw.”

That was one of only three of Parker’s 26 assists that came while the Pirates were leading. I don’t know if that ratio would be similar to that for all outfield assists, but it leads me to think that baserunners were considerably less willing to take risks when behind, at least against someone like Parker.

Including the force out, Parker had 15 assists in which his was the only throw that led to the out. Those assists were remarkably well distributed around the bases: three at first base, four at second, four at third and four at the plate. Aside from the force out, the outs came when Parker:

  • doubled a runner off first after a fly out (3)
  • threw out a runner at second trying to stretch a single (3)
  • threw out a runner trying to advance from second to third on a fly out (2, both of them Montreal’s Chris Speier, on successive days, June 25 and 26)
  • threw out a runner trying to go from first to third on a single (2)
  • threw out a runner trying to score from third on a fly out (3)
  • threw out a runner trying to score from second on a single (1)

Eight of Parker’s nine double plays are included above. The ninth came in a game on August 20 against the Giants; the Retrosheet play-by-play wasn’t clear about what happened and actually contained an error when I found it, but I was able to get the full story from the Pittsburgh Press. With one out and the bases loaded in the top of the sixth, Willie McCovey hit a line drive to right field that Parker caught for an out. Parker then threw home, but Derrell Thomas — who had been thrown out by Parker while trying to score from second on a single in the second inning — held at third. However, catcher Duffy Dyer threw to second and doubled off Rob Andrews, who had not returned to the bag after Parker’s catch. Thus Parker was credited with an assist in the double play, but his throw did not lead directly to the second out.

Parker had 10 other assists in which his throw did not lead directly to the out, with either a relay or cutoff man involved. Here’s how they happened:

  • three times Parker tried to get a runner going from first to third on a single; the runner at third was safe, but the third baseman threw to retire the batter trying to advance to second (one was scored 9-5-6 and the other two went 9-5-4)
  • twice a cutoff man was involved in retiring a runner trying to go from first to third on a single (one was 9-3-5 when the throw was apparently going home and the other was 9-6-1; yeah, that scoring looks weird, but I can’t find the details) (ADDED 1/1/16: I found an explanation of the 9-6-1 play in a story by Walter Bingham in the May 30, 1977 issue of Sports Illustrated: “Pitcher Pedro Borbon of Cincinnati, a foreigner to the base paths, made a routine turn at second on a single to right, only to find the ball waiting for him on his return to the bag. Parker had made the unorthodox — but on this occasion correct — play of throwing to second, not to third.” How exactly the Pirates pitcher got the putout is not explained.)
  • Parker tried to get a runner attempting to score from second on a single but the throw was cut off and the batter was retired trying to advance to second (9-3-6-3)
  • a relay man was involved in retiring a batter at third base trying to stretch a double (9-4-5)
  • Parker’s throw home on a bases-loaded single was cut off; eventually the runner who started on second was retired (9-3-6-2-5, haven’t been able to find more details)
  • Parker’s throw to third apparently beat a batter trying to stretch a double, the batter was retired when the third baseman threw back to second (9-5-6)
  • Parker’s throw home apparently beat a runner trying to score from second on a single, but the runner was retired in a rundown (9-2-5-1)

Only four of Parker’s assists accounted for the first out of the inning. Ten were the second out and 12 ended the inning. By inning, the most assists came in the first, 6 of them. Other assists by inning: second (4), third (1), fourth (5), sixth (4), seventh (2), eighth (2), ninth (1, the force out) and tenth (1. retiring the batter trying to stretch the single that had just scored the go-ahead run). Parker had no assists in the fifth inning.

My question is, how much good did Parker’s assists do for the Pirates? In the 24 games in which he had an assist (including two games in which he had two), the Pirates went 10-14 for a .417 winning percentage (and they lost both the games in which he had two assists). In their other games in 1977 the Pirates went 86-52 for a .623 percentage. Granted most of Parker’s assists came when the Pirates were already behind. But in the five games in which Parker had an assist with the score tied, they went 3-2, pretty much exactly what their winning percentage was in other games. And in the three games in which the Pirates were leading when Parker recorded an assist, they went on to lose one of them.

The Pirates did rally to win five games they were trailing when Parker got an assist, and surely the outs he contributed played a role in that.

ADDED 8/10/15: Let’s take the same close look at Roberto Clemente’s 27 assists in 1961, the most for any major league outfielder in (as this was written) 71 years. Clemente did this in the last season with a 154-game schedule, as the National League still had just eight teams, and he played the field in only 145 of them. (By the way, outfield assists per inning were almost 4% more common in 1961 than in 1977.) Clemente had assists in four straight games (June 1-4), six assists in an eight-game stretch (May 30-June 6) and two assists in a single inning (the third inning on Sept. 4)!

As was the case with Parker in 1977, Clemente had one assist on a force out in ’61. It happened May 13, in the top of the second, after Cincinnati’s Gordy Coleman led off the inning with a walk. “Coleman held up at first on Bob Schmidt’s drive to short right,” according to the next day’s Pittsburgh Press, “and Clemente’s throw to Dick Groat forced Gordie.” (See photo cutline below.)

Clemente forceClemente also had two assists that didn’t result in an out because of an error. The first came on June 6. In the bottom of the seventh, the Dodgers’ Tommy Davis singled and Wally Moon advanced from first to third; Clemente threw to first base, after Davis had rounded the bag (Roberto was fond of throwing behind runners to catch them by surprise, as we’ll see), but first baseman Dick Stuart dropped the ball when trying to tag Davis. The second came on July 9 at Milwaukee. In the bottom of the first, with Frank Bolling on first, Eddie Mathews singled; Clemente threw to second base, and when he did, Bolling was sent home. Dick Groat took Clemente’s throw and threw to the plate in time to retire Bolling, but catcher Smoky Burgess dropped the ball. (Groat’s assist doesn’t appear in the Retrosheet play-by-play but is part of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette game story.)

Roberto Clemente's 1961 Topps card ("Roberto" was just a little too exotic for America then, I guess)

Roberto Clemente’s 1961 Topps card (“Roberto” was just a little too exotic for America then, I guess)

Including the assist on June 6, Clemente had 17 throws that led directly to retiring the runner (or should have), without another throw involved. His assists weren’t as evenly distributed on the bases as Parker’s were, with six at first base, six and second, two at third and three at home. Aside from the force out at second base, here are the other 16:

  • threw behind the runner at first base to retire him after a single (4, including the error)
  • doubled runner off first after a fly out (2)
  • retired runner at second trying to stretch a single (5)
  • retired runner trying to go from first to third on a single (2, on consecutive days Sept. 3-4)
  • retired runner trying to score from second on a single (2)
  • retired runner trying to score on a fly ball (1, which came during Clemente’s only appearance in center field and came in the ninth inning of a game in which the Pirates were trailing 10-0)

Clemente had 10 other assists in which another throw retired the runner. One of them was the dropped ball at home against Milwaukee. Here are the other nine:

  • on a fly out to right with runners on first and second, Clemente’s throw to third did not catch the runner advancing, but the third baseman threw to retire the runner trying to advance from first (9-5-4)
  • Clemente’s throw to second was too late to retire a batter who had hit a double with a man on first, but the shortstop threw to third base to catch the runner who had gone too far around third and tried to get back (9-6-5)
  • on a sacrifice fly with runners on first and third, the runner on first was retired trying to advance to second (9-3-6, I can’t find an account that tells me whether the first baseman took the throw on the bag or if he cut off a throw going home)
  • the relay man threw out a runner trying to score from first on a double (9-4-2)
  • Clemente’s throw home was too late to retire a runner who scored from second, but the catcher then threw to retire the batter who had rounded first (9-2-6-3)
  • on a single with men on first and second, Clemente’s throw home was cut off and the batter was retired in a rundown between first and second (9-3-6-4-3)
  • Clemente threw to first base after a single and the first baseman threw to retire the batter trying for second (9-3-6)
  • Clemente threw to second base after a single and the batter, who had rounded first thinking the throw was going to third, was caught trying to get back to first (9-4-3)
  • on a single with a man on first, Clemente’s throw to third was too late to retire the runner, but the batter was retired trying to take second (9-5-3-4)

Nine of Clemente’s 27 assists made the first out of the inning, 11 made the second and 7 made the third. (I included the would-have-been outs for the dropped throws.) He had the most assists in the fifth inning, 7 of them; others came in the first (4), second (3), third (3), fourth (4), sixth (2), seventh (1), eighth (2) and ninth (1), 21 of the 27 assists came in the first five innings.

Nine of Clemente’s assists came with one team leading by four runs or more. That was also true for seven of Dave Parker’s assists. I wouldn’t have guessed there would be that many in relatively one-sided games.

It doesn’t appear that, as a whole, Clemente’s assists did any more to help his team than Parker’s did. In the 23 games in which he had at least one assist that resulted in an out (he had two assists in two games), the Pirates were 9-14 (and lost both games in which he had two assists), while they had a winning record (66-65) in other games. Only twice did the Pirates win a game they were trailing when Clemente got an assist. They won all five games in which they were leading when Clemente got an assist, but in four of those games they were already ahead by at least three runs. It’s true that Clemente’s assist was crucial in the other win, in the second game of a doubleheader on August 8. Clemente threw out Tony Gonzalez trying to score from second on a single for the third out of the sixth inning; had Gonzalez scored, the game would have been tied and the Phillies would have had two men on base. The Pirates went on to win by just one run.

The 1961 Pirates had a 2-6 record in games that were tied when Clemente got an assist (one of those wins being the game in which he got a force out), considerably worse than their overall record, although again he may have played a key role in one of those wins. He threw out Daryl Spencer trying to score (with a relay from Dick Groat) in the second inning of a game on May 17 the Pirates went on to win by one run.

Small sample sizes abound here, so I should be loath to draw any Big Conclusions, but I was surprised to find out how many of these assists came in games in which the team on the bases was already ahead, and I really wasn’t aware how much less common outfield assists are in the modern day.

The major league baseball games that were played while Apollo 11 landed on the moon

NY Times moon frontThe first moon landing was on Sunday, July 20, 1969. Apollo 11’s lunar module touched down at 4:17 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time, and Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the moon’s surface at 10:56 p.m.

I was 11 years old, and the quest to put humans on the moon had been going literally as long as I could remember. It finally happened that day, one of the greatest accomplishments of human history, and it was covered live on all the television networks.

I was glued to the TV that day and night. Who wouldn’t be?

Well, about 200,000 people decided to go to a major league baseball game that day and heard about the historic event at the ballpark.

There was a full schedule of major league games that Sunday, the last day before the All-Star break. Games at Pittsburgh and Cincinnati were rained out. Eight of the ten teams that hosted games the day of the moon landing, all but Atlanta and Seattle, exceeded their average attendance for the season, most of them by a considerable amount. Of course, a typical Sunday would see higher-than-season-average attendance, but a typical Sunday doesn’t also feature MEN LANDING ON THE MOON FOR THE FIRST TIME. ON LIVE TV.

Game Game time (EDT) Attendance Season average
Detroit at Cleveland (DH) 1:00 13,512 8,611
Cubs at Philadelphia (DH) 1:05 12,393 7,316
Mets at Montreal (DH) 1:35 27,356 16,842
San Diego at Atlanta 1:35 12,282 19,707
Washington at Yankees 2:00 32,933 15,940
Baltimore at Boston 2:00 31,174 25,113
Kansas City at White Sox (DH) 2:15 12,691 6,553
Los Angeles at San Francisco 4:00 32,560 11,805
Oakland at Anaheim (DH) 4:00 17,835 9,849
Minnesota at Seattle 5:00 8,287 9,161

The average attendance I’ve listed for the White Sox is the average for their games in Chicago; they played 11 home games in Milwaukee that year.

The lunar landing took place while eight of the day’s games were in progress. I’ve read at least one first-person newspaper account of every game. Here’s what happened. (I should point out Larry Granillo covered some of this material in a post he did on the 40th anniversary of the landing that was reposted on after Armstrong’s death in 2012.)

A more typical morning-after front page

July 21, 1969

Cleveland: While the Indians exceeded their average attendance, the figure was a disappointment, as the Cleveland Plain Dealer’s Russell Schneider wrote the next day:

When the schedule was drawn up last winter, it seemed like yesterday would be the prime date of the summer for the Indians — a double header against the World Champion Tigers. But that was before (1) the Tribe’s collapse, (2) the Baltimore Orioles’ surge, (3) the moon landing and (4) heavy rains yesterday morning. Consequently, with many fans staying away to watch the astronauts on TV and because of the rain, instead of an anticipated 40,000 crowd, only 13,512 fans showed up…

Alas, Russ didn’t tell us how the news of the moon landing was broken to those who did show up, although he did manage to work the landing into his game story: “It was almost as difficult for the Indians to reach the plate as it was for Apollo 11 to reach the moon yesterday.” (Hey, the Indians scored seven runs in the two games…that doesn’t exactly sound like a 250,000-mile trip around the bases to me.)

I don’t have access to the Detroit newspapers or the Akron Beacon Journal, maybe one of their writers had details on how the landing was acknowledged during the game. If you can help, please let me know in the comments section below.

ADDED 7/22/15: Many thanks to SABR member Dennis VanLangren, who directed me to a game story in the Sandusky (Ohio) Register. Marc Katz reported Armstrong and Aldrin landed on the moon “five seconds” after Tony Horton struck out to end the first game of the doubleheader, although Katz did not report how the landing was announced to the crowd. He also said the Indians “listened to the space happening in the dressing room between games.”

ADDED 2/15/16: I’ve now found this account in the Detroit Free Press from George Cantor:

The ending of the exciting [doubleheader] opener was really a classic of suspense in Detroit. The end of the game, with Tony Horton batting and the bases loaded, coincided with the landing of the Lunar Module and all the radio stations cut away to record that bit of history.

It wasn’t until about 10 minutes later with the astronauts safely on the Moon that baseball fans learned that the Tigers had come through safely, too, by striking out Horton.

I still haven’t found an account of how the landing was observed at the ballpark.

Philadelphia: Bus Saidt tells the story in the next day’s Trenton (N.J.) Evening Times:

At 4:20 yesterday afternoon [this would be right after the Cubs batted in the top of the third in the second game of the doubleheader, according to a story in the Chicago Tribune], Phillies’ PA announcer Eddie Ferenz asked for the Connie Mack Stadium crowd’s attention, then informed one and all that the United States of America had landed a man on the moon.

Immediately, members of both the Chicago Cubs and Phillies lined up along the baselines, there was a moment of silent prayer for the continue safety of our gallant astronauts and for the further success of their mission.

Then the crowd let out a yell and joined in the singing of “God Bless America” with Kate Smith.

Of course the record didn’t play properly, the record playing-system sounded like you would expect of one which first was used right after Tom Edison invented the phonograph, but there was no disguising the genuine emotion generated by the historic moment.

It was the best play the Phillies made all day. [The Phils were swept in the doubleheader, scoring just one run in the process.]


Fans at Philadelphia’s Connie Mack Stadium when the moon landing was announced…from the Philadelphia Inquirer of July 21, 1969

Almost five months later, the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League used Kate Smith’s recording of “God Bless America” in place of “The Star-Spangled Banner” before a game, beginning a longtime tradition.

An article in the Chicago Tribune said the Cubs’ Ron Santo homered in the top of the third inning “at the precise instant that man first landed on the moon.” I don’t know for sure if the author exercised poetic license or was watching the moon coverage in the press box.

Below is an Associated Press photo taken during the celebration that appeared in a number of newspapers the next day; this was in the Omaha World-Herald (note the cutline incorrectly places the ceremony between games of the doubleheader).

Phillies Cubs

Montreal: The Mets and Expos had finished the first game of the doubleheader before Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon but took an extra-long break between games, pausing from 3:55 until 4:30 p.m. Eastern time so fans could listen to broadcast coverage of the landing over the public address system.

Dick Young’s game story in the New York Daily News began: “While much of the world watched man land on the moon for the first time, 27,356 people here packed Jarry Park to watch the Mets and Expos split a doubleheader, proving once again, to each his own.”

Atlanta storyAtlanta: The brief item at left in the Atlanta Constitution says the game was “halted momentarily in the seventh inning” to observe the landing (it doesn’t say who was at bat or even which half of the inning it was). Wayne Minshew reports the crowd “was asked to say a silent prayer for the astronauts who manned Apollo 11. Organist Bob Fountain played ‘God Bless America’ following the silent prayer, then the game was resumed.”

New York: Arming thousands of prepubescent boys with clubs may not sound like a great idea in the 21st Century, but in the 1960s it was good clean fun. And it had a name: Bat Day, which was annually one of the most popular promotions at Yankee Stadium (Hard Liquor and Handgun Night had not yet been invented). As a result the Yankees had a sizable crowd on hand for their game against the Washington Senators, including 17,000 youngsters with bats. (By the way, there was an actual academic research paper that found the Yankees’ 1990 Bat Day “did not increase the incidence of bat-related trauma in the Bronx and northern Manhattan.”)

Never been to a Bat Day? This is what one looks like.

Never been to a Bat Day? This is what one looks like.

The moon landing took place in the top of the eighth inning, and Leonard Koppett described what happened next in the next day’s New York Times:

Ken McMullen, the Washington third baseman, was batting against Jack Aker, with men on first and third and nobody out. The count on him had just gone to one ball, two strikes.

“Ladies and gentlemen, your attention please,” came the voice of Bob Shepard, the public address announcer.

The umpires, according to prior arrangements, waved their arms and stopped play.

“You will be happy to know,” Shepard continued, “that the Apollo 11 has landed safely…”

And a tremendous cheer drowned out the words “on the moon.”

The cheering continued for about 45 seconds. On the scoreboard, the message section read “They’re on the moon.” People stood. They waved the bats back and forth. Shepard kept talking, but his words could not be made out through the din.

On the field, the players seemed confused, or impatient. Most did not turn toward the scoreboard. Finally, the announcer could be understood, and he asked the crowd for a moment of silent prayer for the safe return of the astronauts.

The crowd stilled. After a few seconds of silence, a recording of “America the Beautiful,” sung by a chorus, blared through the loudspeakers. At the end of the song, another mighty cheer arose, just like the one that usually greets the completion of the National Anthem before a game.

The game resumed at 4:21 P.M.

The Times also included a photo taken when the landing was announced:

Yankee moon landing

ADDED 7/10/17: Hey, it turns out there’s video with audio of Shepard announcing the landing!

ADDED 7/17/19: As we approach the 50th anniversary, Scott Allen of the Washington Post has a story in which he interviewed Jack Aker, who was pitching for the Yankees at the time of the moon landing, and Mike Epstein, who was on third base for the Senators. And he linked to my piece, which was nice.

Boston: Jack Clary had detailed reporting of the event in the next day’s Boston Herald-Traveler. It started with the pregame playing of “The Star-Spangled Banner”:

The crowd stood for a couple of moments of silent prayer before the game before an all-out effort in singing the National Anthem. “I even sang I was so proud,” [Reggie] Smith said, “and I generally just listen.”

Herald-TravelerClary went on to describe how the news of the landing was broken to the crowd:

Reggie Smith…had just ended the Red Sox half of the seventh inning by forcing Carl Yastrzemski at second base when Mission Control in Houston heard from the moon: “This is base Tranquility. The Eagle has landed.” [Of course, what Neil Armstrong actually said was, “Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.”]

Two minutes later, public address announcer Sherm Feller told the Fenway Park customers and they began an ovation that lasted 57 seconds. The huge throng stood for the last 35 seconds of that salute while organist John Kiley played a nameless tune — “just something dramatic to fit the occasion.”

…Portable radios were in evidence throughout the afternoon and even before the landing was announced over the PA system, a great murmur had begun to swell in the grandstands.

“I didn’t think they were cheering my force out,” Smith said with a grin after the game.

Clary then put the events of the bottom of the seventh inning on the same timeline as the descent to the moon.

[Syd] O’Brien led off the seventh and Houston’s Mission Control reported the Lunar Module 920 feet above the moon’s surface….Aldrin and Armstrong flew past their landing site in a “football field-like crater” and were just 220 feet away as [Mike Andrews] lashed a single to left….Man was just 100 feet away from the first landing on the moon when Yaz forced Andrews…Reggie stepped to the plate as the Eagle began its final few feet of descent.

For Reggie Smith, the moon landing had extra significance, as described in a Herald-Traveler sidebar to the game story:

His brother Lonny worked at MIT as a bacteriologist on that phase of the Apollo program and now has returned to California where he is engaged on research in rocket fuels.

One of the Red Sox center fielder’s best friends, Willard Barnes, also worked at MIT on the lunar orbit phase as part of a North American Rockwell team that was acutely engaged in the computer phase of the flight’s orbit around the moon.

I’d love to know a little more about Lonny (or Lonnie) Smith and Willard Barnes but have not been able to find anything. If you can provide any information, please leave it in the comments.

Chicago: Richard Dozer started his Chicago Tribune game story with the moon landing:

Comiskey Park’s exploding scoreboard must have given Walter Williams a fright when it belched sparks and noise to salute his infield single in the seventh inning of yesterday’s first game between the White Sox and Kansas City Royals.

Actually, it had been synchronized to the moment of the moon landing, and Walter, who seems to be in the right place at the right time, at least as often as any of his teammates, was merely doing his part to trigger a two-run rally against the Royals.

The White Sox went on to lose both games of the doubleheader. Dozer had no other details of how the moon landing was observed at the ballpark, but the Tribune did include this photo:

White Sox

San Francisco: I’ve read four different accounts of this game (in the San Francisco Chronicle and Examiner and the Los Angeles Times and Herald-Examiner), none of which offer any real detail about how the news of the landing was announced. A story in the news section of the Examiner, about what was going on around the city at the time of the landing, included this: “Out at Candlestick Park a crowd of 32,500 watching the Giants-Dodgers game let out a huge roar when the moon landing was announced over the public address system.” The only mention of the landing in Bob Stevens’ game story in the Chronicle was that the crowd was “remarkably large in light of the Apollo 11 moon landing.” (It was the Giants’ largest crowd of the season to that point and would wind up being their second-largest of the year.) Bob Hunter, in his Herald-Examiner game story, noted Dodger third baseman Bill Sudakis walked to load the bases in the top of the first inning “at the exact moment when the astronauts landed.”

ADDED 11/20/15: Here’s a little more detail from a UPI story in the Palm Springs Desert Sun of July 21:

After walking Bill Sudakis to load the bases and Ted Sizemore at the plate, as the two clubs and 32,560 fans paused for a moment of silence. [sic] It was precisely 1:17.

[ADDED 12/16/15: I’ve obtained a copy of the recording of the Dodgers’ radio broadcast of this game, which seems to be the only recording of any of that day’s games that has survived. Jerry Doggett was calling the game in the first inning with Sudakis at bat:

Outside, ball four, the Dodgers have loaded them up. (brief pause) And as Sudakis walks to first base, the astronauts have landed on the moon. (brief pause) Boy, that’s quite a moment in our history. (Brief pause) [Giants manager] Clyde King now goes out to the mound to talk to [pitcher Gaylord] Perry, the second walk given up. The Dodgers have loaded the bases. (Public address system audible in the background) Here’s an announcement at Candlestick Park now, and we’re going to turn it to the p.a. system. (p.a. unintelligible, then “…has landed on the moon at 1:16 p.m.,” followed by cheering, then p.a. announcer resumes, “Ladies and gentlemen, we interrupt our game, now we ask you to rise…” followed by more unintelligible comments, and then Doggett comes back on) A moment of silence here at Candlestick Park in observance of the landing on the moon. (During the silence it sounds as if some of the NASA audio is playing on the p.a. system, then the p.a. announcer says, “Thank you,” the crowd cheers, then Doggett resumes) So a great moment in our world history, just accomplished by our three [sic] astronauts who have landed on the moon, two have landed of course, we’ll have further reports and details later on as we go through the afternoon. The pitch to [Ted] Sizemore…

Coincidence or not, the break for the landing observance changed Gaylord Perry’s fortunes on the mound. Prior to that, he had faced seven batters, allowing four hits, two walks and three runs. After that, he faced 28 batters, allowing three hits, no walks and no runs.]

This game is the most famous of the games that were played that day, because it featured Perry’s first major league home run, in his eighth season. (He would hit five more before retiring in 1983.) Associated Press baseball writer Hal Bock led his roundup of the day’s National League games with this:

The way Gaylord Perry swings a bat, he stands as much chance of hitting a home run as…oh…as a man does of walking on the moon.

Well, Perry and astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin made it together Sunday. The San Francisco right-hander tagged his first career homer and pitched the Giants to a 7-3 victory over Los Angeles, tightening up the National League’s West Division race while the astronauts took a moon stroll that tightened up the universe.

Here’s the headline the Greensboro (N.C.) Record put on Bock’s story:

Gaylord Perry

And in the Baton Rouge (La.) State-Times:

Gaylord Perry 2

But Bock’s is not the story that became famous. The one that did was told by Pat Frizzell in The Sporting News issue of August 9, 1969:

[Perry’s home run] recalled to Harry Jupiter, formerly of the San Francisco Examiner, that back in 1962 he watched Perry in batting practice one day and remarked to Alvin Dark, then Giant manager, that Gaylord might be a hitter.

“No way,” scoffed Dark. “We’ll have a man on the moon before he hits a home run.”

So, just 25 minutes after Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon, Gaylord whacked his first big league homer.

There’s no evidence Jupiter, or anyone else, had this anecdote in print before the moon landing, but that doesn’t mean it’s not true. Both Perry and Dark told the story often over the years since.

Anaheim: Here’s the headline on the game story in the next day’s Los Angeles Times:


From Mitch Chortkoff’s story:

The Angels divided a doubleheader with the Oakland Athletics Sunday on an afternoon when baseball was minimized by the major news event of the day.

The opening game was 17 minutes old, and Oakland’s Rick Monday was at bat in the second inning when the contest was halted, and the following words were flashed on the message board in left field:

“We have landed on the moon.”

The Ball Day crowd of 17,835 cheered its approval, and then the game resumed.

…The second game ended five minutes before Apollo 11 astronauts began preparations for their unprecedented walk on the moon. In anticipation of the event, however, all but about 3,000 spectators departed the ballpark before the second game ended.

The A’s starting pitcher in the first game was 19-year-old Vida Blue, making his first appearance in the major leagues. He was the only player to debut in the big leagues the day of the moon landing.

SeattleSeattle: Play didn’t begin in Seattle until about 45 minutes after the moon landing. Hy Zimmerman doesn’t include a mention of what happened at the time of the landing in his Seattle Times game story, his only allusion to the events of the day being that the crowd of 8,287 — the smallest at the day’s major league games — was “presumably held to that number by the moon landing and pregame showers.” But an Associated Press roundup of what was happening at various places in America at the time of the landing included this:

…pregame ceremonies before an American League baseball game between the hometown Pilots and the Minnesota Twins were interrupted by an announcement of the moon landing. The fans cheered, stood up and sang “America the Beautiful.”

(That’s “America the Beautiful” 2, “God Bless America” 2 for those keeping score.)


I worked for Dave Mona after he got out of the newspaper business, but in 1969 he was the Twins beat writer for the Minneapolis Tribune

Alas, Seattle pitcher Jim Bouton didn’t include any mention of the moon landing in his entry for the day in his published diary of the 1969 season, “Ball Four,” but Jim was preoccupied by the tough outing he had on the mound that day in the Pilots’ loss.

The Pilots actually lost two games that day. The previous night’s game was suspended in the 16th inning, tied 7-7, because of the American League’s 1 a.m. curfew and was resumed before Sunday’s scheduled game began. It turned out to be a big day for Twins pitcher Jim Perry, Gaylord’s older brother. Perry finished the suspended game, pitching two shutout innings and scoring the winning run after an 18th-inning double, then shut out the Pilots in the scheduled game to earn his second victory of the day.

An ad in the Cleveland Plain Dealer the morning after the landing

An ad in the Cleveland Plain Dealer the morning after the landing

The biggest crowd at any ballpark on the day of the first landing on the moon was not there to see a baseball game. The Los Angeles Herald-Examiner reported 81,032 people were at Dodger Stadium for an afternoon address by the president of the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Watchtower Society. He predicted Armageddon would take place in the mid-1970s, although church officials admitted they weren’t quite as sure of that as they had been when they forecast Armageddon would occur in 1925.

(My earlier post has information about some of the minor league games that were played that day and night, including a story involving baseball clown Max Patkin that made it into his autobiography and obituary.)

From “aw, rats” to redemption: Miss Bloomington sings the National Anthem at two ballparks in 1976

This isn’t the first blog post I’ve written based on something I found out about listening to an old radio broadcast. This time I was listening to the WJR Radio broadcast of the Tigers-Angels game of August 17, 1976. As the Tigers came to bat in the bottom of the eighth inning, Ernie Harwell passed along this news:

We’ve got a bulletin here on our Western Union ticker, we want to give it to you just as it came in to us. It says, “Tonight is Bloomington Night at the Met.” That’s in Bloomington, Minnesota. [The Minnesota Twins played their home games at Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington, commonly referred to as Met Stadium or the Met.] “In honor of the occasion, Miss Bloomington led the multitudes in the National Anthem. Three-quarters of the way through she lost her place, said, ‘Oh, rats,’ and walked off the field.”

Harwell’s broadcast partner Paul Carey responded with a hearty laugh. Seconds later, Tiger catcher Bruce Kimm hit the only home run he would ever hit in the major leagues to break a 2-2 tie, and Detroit’s rookie pitching sensation Mark Fidrych would go on to defeat the Angels 3-2.

Met StadiumAs soon as I heard Ernie share this story I knew I had to find out more about what happened that night, and what happened to that singer. Especially since this happened in Minnesota; two weeks after this game was played I arrived in Minnesota to start college and I would stay there (Minnesota, not college) for most of the next 30 years; I skipped a few classes to take in a Twins game at the Met.

Little did I know when I started chasing details of this story that there would be a second part to it. Nor did I know I would have a delightful conversation with a woman who can still laugh about this almost 40 years later.

* * * * *

From the Aberdeen (S.D.) American-News of Aug. 18, 1976

From the Aberdeen (S.D.) American-News of Aug. 18, 1976

Her name was misspelled in the first news stories as Stephany Nielsen; she was actually Stephanie Nilson, a 19-year-old graduate of Bloomington Jefferson High School who was about to enter her sophomore year at the College of St. Catherine (now St. Catherine University), an all-women’s college in St. Paul (a fine school from which my wife graduated). Being Miss Bloomington may not have been enough to earn her the honor of singing the anthem on Bloomington Night, but she was an accomplished singer, majoring in voice at St. Kate’s with plans to become a professional opera singer.

StephanieStephanie sang the anthem without accompaniment and was disconcerted by the delayed echo of her voice coming over the loudspeakers. After she sang “Gave proof through the night,” she got confused about where she was in the song and stopped, then after a few seconds threw up her hands and said, “Aw, rats” (or as the Minneapolis Tribune perhaps more accurately recorded it, “Aaaaw rats!”).

“She smiled graciously, bowed, and a sympathetic audience applauded,” according to an Associated Press report. (The official attendance that night was 7,850. By the way, other AP stories said she got through the line “Oh say does that star-spangled banner yet wave” before giving up, but that is incorrect.)

But Stephanie didn’t run and hide in shame…she went back to her seat near the Twins dugout, where she watched the Twins lose to the Orioles, 10-3. (Patrick Reusse, now a Minneapolis StarTribune sports columnist but then the Twins beat writer for the St. Paul Dispatch, led his game story with Stephanie’s anthem breakdown, then added, “After that, things deteriorated as far as the Twins were concerned.”)

From an Associated Press story:

Miss Nielsen told a reporter the two-second delay caused by the echo “threw me off. But I wasn’t nervous. I was enjoying it, but that echo made it difficult.

“I could feel everybody in the audience laughing. But I didn’t feel they were laughing at me. They were laughing with me.”

Stephanie’s boyfriend, Jim Moen, told the reporter, “She blew it at her opening night at the Met” (playing on the fact that the stadium shared a nickname with New York’s famed Metropolitan Opera, for whom Stephanie no doubt would have loved to sing).

“At first I suppose I was embarrassed,” she told another reporter the next day. “But it’s only human and it happens to everybody. I guess I’m just a clown at heart. I’m glad the audience reacted the way they did. That really helped.”

The wire-service account of Stephanie’s misadventure made it into many of the nation’s newspapers in the days to come and gave headline writers something to play with:

From the St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 18, 1976

From the St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 18, 1976

From the Miami News, Aug. 19, 1976

From the Miami News, Aug. 19, 1976

From the Bangor (Maine) Daily News, Aug. 19, 1976

From the Bangor (Maine) Daily News, Aug. 19, 1976

From the Peoria (Ill.) State Journal-Register, Aug. 20, 1976

From the Peoria (Ill.) State Journal-Register, Aug. 20, 1976

Futire media mogul Ted Turner participated in many of his promotions in his first year as owner of the Atlanta Braves in 1976.

Future international media mogul Ted Turner participated in many of his promotions in his first year as owner of the Atlanta Braves in 1976.

One of the people who read Stephanie’s story was Ted Turner, then in his first season as owner of the Atlanta Braves. Among the reasons Turner was able to buy the team in the first place was that attendance had been pathetically low, and Turner vowed to increase the number of paying customers by staging as many crazy promotions as possible: motorized-bathtub races, mattress-stacking contests, a tightrope walk across the top of the stadium by daredevil Karl Wallenda, ostrich racing, “Headlock and Wedlock Day” (weddings at home plate before the game, professional wrestling on the field afterwards).

When Turner heard about Stephanie Nilson, he decided to make her part of the show at Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium and invited her to take another shot at singing the anthem the next week, on August 23. “I’m glad to do it again, but I hope I don’t blow it,” Stephanie told a reporter after accepting Turner’s offer.

Stephanie succeedsThis time Stephanie took the field holding a card with the lyrics written on it. (“Someone suggested it,” she told a reporter. “It’s easy to get lost under pressure like that.”) But she didn’t need to look at it as she got through the anthem without incident. “She received generous applause for her flawless performance and waved to the crowd,” the Associated Press reported. As was the case with her bungled performance, the encore received significant national media attention.

Ted Turner doubled up on promotions that night…in addition to featuring the singing beauty queen, he staged a pregame “Baseball Olympics” in which one of the events saw Turner and Phillies pitcher Tug McGraw compete to see who could push a baseball from third base to home plate the fastest using their nose. Yeah, that got some attention…

Tug McGrawTed Turner pushingAnd with that Stephanie Nilson’s 15 minutes of fame came to an end (although she was mentioned in a January 1977 Sports Illustrated story about difficulties singing the national anthem before sporting events). So what happened to her after that?

* * * * *

Stephanie todayThe alumni office at St. Catherine University was kind enough to get me in touch with Stephanie, who is now Stephanie Askew and, along with her husband, owns an art gallery in Redstone, Colorado. (Jim Moen, the boyfriend who made the crack about Stephanie blowing her opening night at the Met? Stephanie married him after she graduated from St. Kate’s in 1979, but they divorced.) Stephanie’s watercolor paintings are on display at the gallery.

She has also had a long career as a professional singer, which continues today. Walking off the Met Stadium field without finishing the national anthem didn’t leave any emotional scars. Here’s part of the phone conversation we had.

Me: Had you ever sung the national anthem at an event before that Twins game?

Stephanie: Yes, but never where I had the echo from across the field. I wasn’t ready for that. Nobody told me about the echo.

Me: When did you realize things were going wrong?

Stephanie: Right away. (laughs) I thought, oh my gosh, this is tricky, I’m going to have to really concentrate. I reached that point where I couldn’t think of where I was as it was coming out of my mouth, and I just totally lost it. What I did, throwing my hands up in the air and saying “oh, rats” was, thankfully, instinctively correct. I could have said other things, but I wasn’t a cusser, so I’m thankful that didn’t come out.

Me: That’s one of the things I love about this story. “Oh, rats” is such a Minnesota response.

Stephanie: (laughs) Yeah. Exactly.

I remember Tony Oliva was the first one to reach me. Two guys came bolting from the dugout, and one of them was Tony, and he grabbed me and swung me around – I’m wearing a dress – and he’s hugging me, thinking I am the funniest thing. Maybe he ran out to give me some moral support, too. They carried me back and it was hilarious.

Me: That’s another thing I love…you didn’t go hide, you stayed and watched the game and talked to a reporter.

“Aw, rats.” (opens envelope) “What are the last words of ‘The Star-Spangled Banner’?” (Okay, I don’t know if that’s how Johnny talked about Stephanie Nilson, but he could have…)

Stephanie: I was so embarrassed, but we were laughing about the whole thing. My boyfriend was the one who said I blew my debut at the Met, that was his little tidbit immediately, and I thought, that’s pretty funny. “Opera singer blows her debut at the Met.” How clever is that? I have a funny sense of humor, so we just laughed about the whole thing. I was just amazed by all the press and the stories. Johnny Carson talked about me on his show.

Me: I also love that you didn’t let this experience scar you.

Stephanie: (laughs) Because I have a sick sense of humor. I can laugh at myself, that’s the best part. Things happen. Fortunately everybody else laughed with me. When I stood there and threw my hands up in the air and said “oh, rats,” the sound of the roar of laughter, I’ll never forget that.

Me: How did you find out about Atlanta?

Forgetful singerStephanie: My chaperone [with the Miss Bloomington pageant] called and said, guess what, you’ve just been invited to go to Atlanta, three days, all expenses paid, and meet Ted Turner, he wants to give you another chance. And I’m like, are you kidding me? He said, “And we ARE going.” We are? We’re going? I’m so embarrassed, you’re going to make me go? And he said, “You’re going.”

A photo from Stephanie's personal collection, in Atlanta with her Miss Bloomington chaperones, Todd and Barb Peterson

A photo from Stephanie’s personal collection, in Atlanta with her Miss Bloomington chaperones, Todd and Barb Peterson

Stephanie singing in Atlanta, from her personal collection

Stephanie singing in Atlanta, from her personal collection

We had the best time, I enjoyed it. I have pictures of Ted Turner, standing right next to me in a group. There’s a funny one, I always think I’m going to have it blown up, I could blackmail him. He was saying something to me so his head was turned to me, he was taller so he was looking down, and it looks like he’s looking right down my dress.

Me: I wouldn’t put it past him.

Stephanie: It was a classic. Now I look back and go, wow, I was with Ted Turner.

[ADDED 4/6/16: Stephanie found the photo. She’s right, it is a classic…]


Fortunately they didn’t have an echo problem [at Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium]. The speakers were wonderful. They had a huge scoreboard, and when I was singing, there was my name in lights, “Stephanie Nilson sings again,” and I thought, this is hilarious. What a silly thing! If I’d sung it correctly [in Minnesota] nobody would have cared, but because I made a mistake… Everybody loves the underdog.

The Twins gave me another chance shortly after I returned from Atlanta. That time it was perfect.

Me: The echo didn’t bother you?

Stephanie: I kind of just put it out of my head. I had my cue card; I didn’t have to use it, but I was ready. [Stephanie doesn’t remember the date of this game; I’d love to find out.] [UPDATED 6/12/20: Found it! It was August 30, and according to the Minneapolis Tribune — which was still misspelling her name — she “came through unscathed.”)

A photo of the scoreboard in Atlanta from Stephanie's personal collection

A photo of the scoreboard in Atlanta from Stephanie’s personal collection

From the Greensboro (N.C.) Daily News, Aug. 25, 1976

From the Greensboro (N.C.) Daily News, Aug. 25, 1976


A plaque at the Mall of America marks where home plate stood at Metropolitan Stadium

A plaque at the Mall of America marks where home plate stood at Metropolitan Stadium

In later years, when I would go to visit my family in Minnesota, I would take my children to the Mall of America [built on the site of Met Stadium], where they have home plate from the Met, and we go and stand on home plate and take pictures because they know that’s my claim to fame. We stand there and we all laugh. They laugh at Mommy. The house that my parents first rented when we moved to Bloomington when I was three years old had to be torn down to build the Mall of America.

Me: How did you get started singing?

Stephanie: For some reason in elementary school they always pulled me out to do any of the little singing parts because they said I had a really pretty voice. In middle school my music teacher knew I had more of an operatic voice so he selected the operetta “Naughty Marietta” for us to do. I was the lead role, and I got really hooked, I just loved classical music and the opera.

In college my voice teacher was Marguerite Gignac Hedges; she got me scholarships and took me under her wing. I had a lesson with her every day of the week, and she didn’t do that for all her students. Every day I went in for 30 minutes and we did exercises. She was so wonderful to me. She wanted me to go to Europe to study, so we found a program and I spent a whole year in Europe, 12 months in Vienna and Germany, in ’77 and ’78. That was the highlight of my life, and I really learned so much.

When I graduated I moved to Texas and I taught voice lessons and I joined some operatic groups there. I sang opera in Dallas for years. I also did commercial jingles and I was always doing some type of music in my church. And then I got to sing with big bands. There is a group called New Horizons for people 50 years of age and older. In Dallas they had a big concert band and also had a 20-piece jazz band. When I was 50 I found out about this group; I auditioned and they grabbed me, and I sang with them for eight years. We would tour throughout Dallas-Fort Worth, retirement communities, senior centers, nursing homes, veterans’ hospitals, private parties. I sang all of the great tunes from the ‘30s and ‘40s; my God, I was in heaven! [Here’s Stephanie singing with the band. Oh heck, here’s another.]


A photo from Atlanta from Stephanie’s personal collection. I’m guessing that guy had just landed and said, “Take me to your leader,” and Stephanie was the closest person around wearing a crown.

I didn’t think I would have a place to sing here when I moved here three years ago [Redstone‘s population is only about 100], and now I have so much singing stuff going on I can hardly make time for my job. I get to sing opera here! There is a group in Glenwood Springs that has a big band and a orchestra, so now I’m performing opera with the orchestra and I do my big band music with this amazing band. My husband gets to play drums with the band, too, so that’s kind of fun. We have a girl group, three of us we call the Redstone Rubies, and we do three-part harmonies and dress up in full costumes and wigs and do the Supremes and country-western and the ‘60s, it’s just hysterical. We do two concerts a month in front of our gallery.

I’ve been so fortunate my whole life. I turn 59 in September and I’m still singing opera. What is so exciting is my voice teacher from St. Kate’s, she’s 86 years old and she summers in Aspen which is 50 minutes away, so I still get to see her. Last summer I was doing a classical recital and she coached me for three weeks, we prepared my concert. Here she is at 86 and she’s helping me still. Isn’t that cool?

That funny baseball thing that happened was just such a fluke, it’s such a funny story. I actually am singing the national anthem with my Redstone Rubies here on the Fourth of July and I shared that story with them a few weeks ago, and they just rolled with laughter. If you can make people laugh, that’s a good thing. I’ve had an extremely joyful life with music.

Thanks to my friend Brendan Henehan of Twin Cities Public Television’s “Almanac” for finding and sharing with me several Minneapolis and St. Paul newspaper items about Stephanie.